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HENRY HART MILMAN 1855
JAMES BR YCE 1863
ERNST SACKUR 1894
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Abbo of Fleury appointment Atto authority became bishops canon law canonical election Canossa Cardinal Carolingian Christendom claim clergy clerical Cluniac movement Concordat of Worms conflict contest councils crown death decree against lay Dictatus Papae diocese ecclesiastical eleventh century Emperor Empire episcopal excommunication feudal German Gregorian reformers Gregory VII Gregory's hand Henry IV Henry IV's Henry's Hildebrand Holy Humbert idea imperial influence invest investiture controversy investiture decree issue Italian Italy king kingship laity lay investiture laymen Lombard Lorraine lower churches mediaeval ment Middle Ages Milan monarchy monasteries monasticism monks Norman papacy papal parish churches party Paschal Pataria period Peter Damian political pontificate Pope pope's position prelates priest princes principle received reforming movement religious revolution revolutionary ring and staff Roman Church Rome royal Rudolf ruler Salian Saxons secular simony spiritual struggle successor synod temporal tion tithes tradition tury University Worms