Exit, Voice, and Loyalty: Responses to Decline in Firms, Organizations, and States
An innovator in contemporary thought on economic and political development looks here at decline rather than growth. Albert O. Hirschman makes a basic distinction between alternative ways of reacting to deterioration in business firms and, in general, to dissatisfaction with organizations: one, “exit,” is for the member to quit the organization or for the customer to switch to the competing product, and the other, “voice,” is for members or customers to agitate and exert influence for change “from within.” The efficiency of the competitive mechanism, with its total reliance on exit, is questioned for certain important situations. As exit often undercuts voice while being unable to counteract decline, loyalty is seen in the function of retarding exit and of permitting voice to play its proper role.
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LibraryThing ReviewUser Review - ben_a - LibraryThing
Hirshman's analysis of the role of exit and voice in institutional change is, I suspect, more referenced than read. There's a lot of not terribly good economics here, which lards up an already thin ... Read full review
Visit http://www.unn.edu.ng/department/political-science or http://www.unn.edu.ng/department/economics for such intriguing works....
Introduction and Doctrinal Background
A Special Difficulty in Combining Exit
How Monopoly Can be Comforted
On Spatial Duopoly and the Dynamics
A Theory of Loyalty
Exit and Voice in American Ideology
The Elusive Optimal Mix of Exit and Voice
A A simple diagrammatic representation
B The choice between voice and exit