Hostile Intent: U.S. Covert Operations in Chile, 1964-1974
Kristian Gustafson's Hostile Intent reexamines one of the most controversial chapters in U.S. intelligence history, the Central Intelligence Agency's covert operations in Chile from 1964 to 1974. At the request of successive U.S. presidents, the CIA in conjunction with the State Department and the Defense Intelligence Agency first acted to prevent Chilean socialist Salvador Allende from becoming the democratically elected president of his country and then tried to undermine his government once he was in office. Allende's government eventually fell in a bloody military coup on September 11, 1973. President Richard Nixon's administration and corporate interests were not sorry to see him go, but did U.S. covert operations actually play a decisive role in Allende's downfall? The declassification of thousands of U.S. government documents over the last several years demands that historians take a new look. Since 1973, most observers have maintained that U.S. machinations were responsible for the success of Gen. Augusto Pinochet's coup that forced Allende's fall and suicide. This assessment has been based on a thin documentary record of U.S. activity, the myth of an all-powerful CIA, and the CIA's checkered history of covert action in Latin America. However, Gustafson convincingly shows the conventional wisdom about the impact of U.S. actions is badly flawed. His meticulous research is based upon an intensive examination of previously unavailable U.S. records as well as interviews with key figures. Hostile Intent is the most comprehensive account to date of U.S. involvement in Chile, and its provocative reinterpretation of this involvement will shape all future debates.
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THE FALL OF THE ALLENDE GOVERNMENT
THE CHILEAN CAMPAIGN IN PERSPECTIVE
GLOSSARY AND DRAMATIS PERSONAE
ABOUT THE AUTHOR
THE AGENCY RESPONSE TO CORPORATE INTEREST
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40 Committee actions in Chile Agency Agency’s Alessandri Alexis Johnson Allende government Allende’s Allende’s election Ambassador Korry American armed forces assassination assistance August Broe C/WHD cable to CIA campaign candidate Chile Collection Chilean army Chilean military Chilean political Chilean Presidential Election Christian Democrats Church Committee CIA Headquarters CIA officer CIA station CIA’s communist Congress congressional election coup plotting covert action covert operations Crimmins deleted Department Devine documents economic Election in Chile File FRAP Frei funding Hecksher Henry Kissinger Ibid intelligence interview involved ITT’s Johnson junta Kornbluh Korry’s Latin America March Marxist memo National Security Nixon noted November October operations in Chile opposition overthrow party Pinochet plotters president presidential election propaganda Salvador Allende Santiago Station Schneider Senate September September 11 Shackley Socialist Soviet Tomic Track U.S. government United Vaky Valenzuela Viaux victory vote Washington White House William Colby