World Trade Center building performance study: data collection, preliminary observations, and recommendations

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Federal Emergency Management Agency, Federal Insurance and Mitigation Administration, 2002 - Architecture - 303 pages
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The collapse of the two 110-storey towers of the World Trade Centre following the September 11 terrorist attacks was amongst the worst building disasters in history and resulted in the loss of 2,830 lives. This study has been produced by the Federal Emergency Management Agency with the help of experts in tall building design, steel structure behaviour, fire and blast engineering and structural investigation. It considers the immediate effects of the aircraft impacts on each tower, the spread of fire following the crashes, the fire-induced reduction of structural strength and the complex series of events that led to the collapse of each tower. It also looks at the performance of buildings in the immediate vicinity to determine the effects of damage from falling debris and fires. Recommendations are presented for detailed engineering studies in order to produce improved guidance and tools for building design and performance evaluation.

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Figure 413 WTC 5 on fire 413

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