Enforcing the Law: The Case of the Clean Water Acts

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M.E. Sharpe, 1996 - Political Science - 249 pages
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Hunter and Waterman's important work is the most comprehensive analysis available of the Environmental Protection Agency's enforcement of the Clean Water Act and its amendments. The book uses extensive EPA data, including a survey of federaland state-level environmental officials, to examine enforcement from the perspective of government personnel. Emphasis is on what is done, how it is done, and why it is done. By combining detailed documentation of regulatory implementation with surveys of the views of federal and state officials, industry representatives, and environmental activists, this study illuminates a process of pragmatic enforcement - that is, the way bureaucrats actually do their jobs. The book examines the operation of pollution control policy over two decades and several presidential administrations; shows the pragmatic nature of regulatory enforcement, mixing adherence with due discretion; and considers the effectiveness of both punitive and incentive-based policies in different contexts.

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The WaterQuality Problem A Study in Diversity
The Institutional Setting
Pragmatic Enforcement
Bureaucrats and Attitudes The Seeds of Discretion
Bureaucratic Discretion and Hierarchical Political Control
Enforcement at the State Level Primacy and State Organizational Structures
Explaining Variations in NPDES Enforcement
Water Outcomes The Neglected Arena
Conclusions and Recommendations
About the Authors and Contributors

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Page 19 - ... herbicides, and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB's), for example. Toxicity effects can be dramatic, as in the case of large fishkills, or they can be subtle, as in the case of minute concentrations causing decreasing fertility or changing reproductive or predation habits over a long period of time. Detecting any chemical and tracing it back to its sources can be difficult, particularly in the case of widely used and highly persistent substances such as mercury, dieldrin, or PCB's. Sources can be...

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About the author (1996)

Susan Hunter is associate professor of political science at West Virginia University.

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