Enforcing the Law: The Case of the Clean Water Acts
Hunter and Waterman's important work is the most comprehensive analysis available of the Environmental Protection Agency's enforcement of the Clean Water Act and its amendments. The book uses extensive EPA data, including a survey of federaland state-level environmental officials, to examine enforcement from the perspective of government personnel. Emphasis is on what is done, how it is done, and why it is done. By combining detailed documentation of regulatory implementation with surveys of the views of federal and state officials, industry representatives, and environmental activists, this study illuminates a process of pragmatic enforcement - that is, the way bureaucrats actually do their jobs. The book examines the operation of pollution control policy over two decades and several presidential administrations; shows the pragmatic nature of regulatory enforcement, mixing adherence with due discretion; and considers the effectiveness of both punitive and incentive-based policies in different contexts.
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The Institutional Setting
Bureaucrats and Attitudes The Seeds of Discretion
Bureaucratic Discretion and Hierarchical Political Control
Enforcement at the State Level Primacy and State Organizational Structures
Explaining Variations in NPDES Enforcement
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activity administrative orders African Americans agency personnel analysis argued bureaucratic discretion Chapter Clean Water Act coefficient compliance compliance-monitoring demonstrate dependent variable discharge dummy economic EMS manual enforce the law enforcement actions conducted enforcement personnel enforcement process enforcement response environmental protection EPA NPDES EPA officials EPA personnel evidence examine factors federal EPA goals greater groundwater health agencies hierarchical ibid identified impact important industry inspections interest groups legislation Likewise mean severity level ment miniEPA minor permits municipalities nonpoint source pollution nonpoint sources nonprimacy North Dakota NPDES enforcement NPDES permits NPDES personnel NPDES program number of enforcement organizational structure outcomes outputs percent percentage perceptions of discretion permit issuances permits issued political population pragmatic enforcement primacy R-square regard Region 9 regional offices regulation represent Ringquist 1993 role sources of pollution Table tion water pollution water pollution control water quality water usage water-quality West Virginia Wood and Waterman
Page 19 - ... herbicides, and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB's), for example. Toxicity effects can be dramatic, as in the case of large fishkills, or they can be subtle, as in the case of minute concentrations causing decreasing fertility or changing reproductive or predation habits over a long period of time. Detecting any chemical and tracing it back to its sources can be difficult, particularly in the case of widely used and highly persistent substances such as mercury, dieldrin, or PCB's. Sources can be...