A Miocene (10-12 Ma) Evergreen Laurel-Oak Forest from Carmel Valley, California
This is a study of the Miocene Carmel flora of California, an evergreen laurel–oak forest that grew in a mild temperate (mean annual temperature of 15 degrees C), frost-free climate, with annual precipitation of about 760 mm (30 in.). Collectively, the Carmel and other Miocene floras like the San Pablo and Temblor (broad-leafed deciduous trees, with few evergreen species), the Puente (evergreen oak forest with chaparral species), the Mint Canyon, Ricardo, and Tehachapi (numerous arid subtropical scrub associated with oak woodland and chaparral species) suggest they foreshadowed a similar distribution of the different California vegetation zones today.
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acute allied Amer annual apex associated Axelrod base Berry Bull Calif Carmel flora Carmel Valley Carnegie Inst central California Chaney and Sanborn chiefly chrysolepis climate closely cm long coast coastal Collection conifer contains Creek deciduous hardwoods Description Discussion distributed dominated Dorf east estimated evergreen Family farther south forest fossil genera Geol Geology Hypotype includes indicated interior irregular late laurel leaf leaves margin mean Mexico middle Miocene Miocene floras Mohave Monterey Formation Nectandra Nevada northern numerous occurs Ocotea Panama Paratype pasadorii Persea perseaformis Pinus plants Platanus Plate Pleistocene pollen precipitation present present-day probably Publ Puente Quercus range recorded red beds region represent Ricardo Sabal secondaries Selva of Lauraceae shales shrubs Sierra similar southern California species suggests summer Table taxa Temblor temperate temperature tertiaries thick trees tuffs UCMP Univ vegetation Wash western woodland