An Introduction to the Theory of Optics

Front Cover
E. Arnold, 1904 - Physical optics - 340 pages
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Contents

CHAPTER II
19
Application of Fouriers theorem
21
Waves travelling along a stretched string
22
Transverse waves in an elastic medium
24
Condensational waves
26
Spherical waves
27
Waves spreading from a disturbed region of finite size
29
The principle of superposition
31
Refraction and reflexion of waves
32
Wavefront and wave surface
34
CHAPTER III
35
Intensity
37
Optical length and optical distance
38
Fermats principle and its application
41
The principle of reversibility
43
Polarization
45
Light reflected from transparent substances
47
Total reflexion
50
CHAPTER IV
54
Calculation of the combined effects due to two separate sources
55
Conditions necessary for the experimental illustration of inter ference
57
Youngs experiment
58
Fresnels experiments
59
Subjective method of observing interference bands
60
Observations with white light
61
Difficulty of illustrating simple interference phenomena by experiment
63
Colours of thin films
67
Fringes observed with thick plates
68
Michelsons combination of mirrors
70
Newtons rings
72
Brewsters bands
74
Stationary vibrations
76
Applications
77
Historical
81
THE DIFFRACTION OF LIGHT ART PAGE 46 Huygens principle
84
Laminar zones
88
Preliminary discussion of problems in diffraction
92
Babinets principle
93
Shadows of a straight edge in parallel light
94
Shadows of a straight edge in divergent light
96
Shadow of a narrow lamina
98
Passage of plane waves through a slit
99
Passage of light through a slit General case
102
Passage of light through a circular aperture
103
56 Shadow of a circular disc
104
Zone plates
105
CHAPTER VI
107
Overlapping of spectra
111
Dispersion of gratings
112
Wire gratings
113
Gratings with predominant spectra
114
Echelon gratings
115
Concave gratings
118
Measurement of wavelength
123
Historical
125
CHAPTER VII
128
Image formed by a lens
129
Resolving power of telescopes
131
Resolving power of the eye
133
Luminous surfaces
134
Illumination of the image of a luminous surface
136
Brightness of stars
139
ART PAGE 77 Powers of spectroscopes
140
Resolving power of prisms
142
Resolving power of compound prisms
144
Brightness of image in the spectroscope
146
Aberrations
148
The formation of images without reflexion and refraction Pinhole photography
150
CHAPTER VIII
152
The optic axes
155
Uniaxal and biaxal crystals
156
Ray velocity
159
The direction of displacement
162
Shape of the wavesurface
163
The axes of single ray velocity and of single wave velocity
165
Peculiarity of single wave propagation
166
Intensity of illumination in transmitted light
180
Observations of colour effects with parallel light
182
Observations with light incident at different angles
183
Uniaxal plate cut perpendicularly to the axis
184
Relation between wave velocities
185
Relation between ray velocities
187
ART PAGE 111 The surface of equal phase difference or isochromatic surface
188
Application of isochromatic surface to the study of polarization effects
190
Isochromatic curves in uniaxal crystals
191
Isochromatic curves in biaxal crystals
193
The achromatic lines in biaxal cstals
194
Measurement of angle between optic axes
195
Dispersion of optic axes
196
The half wavelength plate
197
The quarter wave plate
198
Application of quarter wave plate
200
Babinets compensator
201
PART II
204
Simple elongation
205
Simple shear
206
Components of strain
208
Shearing stress produced by combined tension and pressure at right angles
210
Equations of motion in a disturbed medium
211
Equations of the electromagnetic field
214
Maxwells theory
215
Differential equation for propagation of electric and magnetic disturbances in dielectric media
216
Refraction
217
Direction of electric and magnetic forces at right angles to each other
218
Double refraction
219
Problem of refraction and reflexion
221
Reflexion in the electromagnetic theory
222
ART PAGE 141 Reflexion in the elastic solid theory
225
Lord Kelvins theory of contractile aether
230
Historical
232
CHAPTER XI
236
The laws of refraction in absorbing media
239
Free and forced vibrations
240
Passage of light through a responsive medium
243
General investigation of the effect of a responsive medium
244
Wave velocity in a responsive medium according to the electromagnetic theory
246
Dispersion in transparent media
249
Extension of the theory
251
Finite range of free vibrations
253
Absorption
254
Selective refraction
256
Metallic reflexion
258
The optical constants of metals
262
Reflecting powers of metals for waves of low frequency
266
Connexion between refractive index and density
268
Historical
270
CHAPTER XII
272
Analytical representation of the rotation of the plane of polarization
274
Isotropic substances
275
Allogyric double refraction
278
Crystalline media
279
Isochromatic and achromatic lines
280
Photogyration in the magnetic field
287
Connexion between the Zeeman effect and magnetogyration
290
Experimental facts and their connexion with the theory
291
Double refraction at right angles to the lines of force
295
CHAPTER XIII
297
Plane waves of distortion in an elastic medium
301
Waves diverging from a sphere oscillating in an elastic medium
303
Divergent waves of sound
305
Transmission of energy by electromagnetic waves
310
Group velocity
313
THE NATURE OF LIGHT 181 Application of Fouriers theorem Gouys treatment
319
Application of Fouriers integral Lord Rayleighs investi gations
321
White light analysed by grating
323
White light analysed by dispersive media
325
Interference
326
Talbots bands
329
Roentgen radiation
332
The radiation of a black body
333
Dopplers principle
334
Index
337

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Page 150 - The image of the sun thrown on a screen at a distance exceeding 66 feet, through a hole i inch in diameter, is therefore at least as well defined as that seen direct. In practice it would be better defined, as the direct image is far from perfect. If the image on the screen be regarded from a distance /, it will appear of its natural angular magnitude.
Page 233 - If, however, this were not the case, we are so perfectly ignorant of the mode of action of the elements of the luminiferous ether on each other, that it would seem a safer method to take some general physical principle as the basis of our reasoning, rather than assume certain modes of action...
Page 151 - Seen from a distance less than / it will appear magnified. Inasmuch as the arrangement affords a view of the sun with full definition and with an increased apparent magnitude, the name of a telescope can hardly be denied to it. "As the minimum focal length increases with the square of the aperture, a quite impracticable distance would be required to rival the resolving-power of a modern telescope. Even for an aperture of four inches /i would be five miles.
Page 336 - No theory of evolution can be formed to account for the similarity of molecules, for evolution necessarily implies continuous change, and the molecule is incapable of growth or decay, of generation or destruction. None of the processes...
Page v - who believe in the possibility of a mechanical conception of the universe, and are not willing to abandon the methods which from the time of Galileo and Newton have uniformly and exclusively led to success, must look with the gravest concern on a growing school of scientific thought which rests content with equations correctly representing numerical relationships between different phenomena, even though no precise meaning can be attached to the symbols used.
Page 82 - ... nearly equal angles from the apertures at all distances, and wider also in the same proportion as the apertures are closer to each other. The middle ... is always light, and the bright stripes on each side are at such distances, that the light coming to them from one of the apertures must have passed through a longer space than that which comes from the other by an interval which is equal to the breadth of one, two, three or more of the supposed undulations...
Page 82 - In order that the effects of two portions of light may be thus combined, it is necessary that they be derived from the same origin, and that they arrive at the same point by different paths, in directions not much deviating from each other.
Page 233 - Light those formulas which represent the motions of a system of molecules acting on each other by mutually attractive and repulsive forces ; supposing always that in the mutual action of any two particles, the particles may be regarded as points animated by forces directed along the right line which joins- them. This last supposition, if applied to those compound particles, at least, which are separable by mechanical division, seems rather restrictive ; as many phenomena, those of crystallization...
Page 233 - of the advantages of this method, of great importance, is that we are " necessarily led by the mere process of the calculation, and with little care "on our part, to all the equations and conditions which are requisite and "sufficient for the complete solution of any problem to which it may be "applied.
Page vi - The study of physics must be based on a knowledge of mechanics, and the problem of light will only be solved when we have discovered the mechanical properties of the ether.

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