The natural history of pollination
The importance of insects in pollinating flowers is so well known today that it is easy to forget it was discovered less than 200 years ago; before that, it was believed that bees were simply collecting nectar from flowers. This is the most thorough and accessible treatment of a fascinating subject.
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adapted America Andrena angiosperms anthers Apiaceae Asteraceae attracted Australia base bat-pollinated bats beetles behaviour biology birds Bombus bumblebees buttercup butterflies carpels catkins Chapter colour common corolla crop dioecious Diptera ecology effective evolution example feeding female flowers fertilisation flies flight floral florets flower-visiting flowering plants foraging forest fruit genera genetic genus glossa groups habitats hairs hawkmoth hermaphrodite honeybees hoverflies hummingbirds important inflorescences insect visits insect-pollinated insects labium Lamiaceae larvae long-tongued mainly male flowers monoecious moths mouth-parts nectar Ophrys orchid ovary ovules perianth petals Plate pollen grains pollen tube pollination pollinia populations probably proboscis produce range reproductive rostellum scent seed self-fertilisation self-incompatibility self-pollination sepals similar solitary bees specialised species stamens stigma structure style surface tion tongue trees tropical tubular flowers types ultra-violet usually visit flowers visiting insect visitors wasps wind-pollinated yellow