Dangerous Pollutants (Xenobiotics) in Urban Water Cycle
Petr Hlavinek, Ongjen Bonacci, Jiri Marsalek, Ivana Mahrikova
Springer Science & Business Media, Dec 16, 2007 - Technology & Engineering - 343 pages
Growing population and rising standards of living exert stress on water supply and the quality of drinking water. Some of these pressures can be reduced by demand management and water and wastewater reuse. In wastewater ma- gement, new challenges are caused by new chemicals of concern, including endocrine disrupters, pharmaceuticals, hormones, and personal care products, which often pass through wastewater treatment plants unabated, but may cause serious impacts on receiving aquatic ecosystems. The topics focused on evaluation of impact of xenobiotics in the whole Urban Water Cycle are an interdisciplinary task which has a rising concern these days. Xenobiotics includes both inorganic elements like heavy metals, metalloids and man-made organic compounds such as pesticides, surfactants, solvents, fragrances, flavours, and pharmaceuticals as well as endocrine dis- pters. It has been estimated that 70,000 xenobiotics may potentially be hazardous for humans and/or ecosystems. Water supply, urban drainage and wastewater treatment systems were originally designed to solve just conventional problems such as supply of potable water, flooding prevention and sanitation. The main problem within the conventional urban water cycle approaches is absence of design to deal with xenobiotics. Nowadays can be seen increased focus on rainwater use, wastewater reclamation and reuse in industrial and as well in domestic sector what increase the exposure to xenobiotics.
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3,5-dichlorophenol activated sludge aeration agricultural analysis aquatic aquifers areas assessment bacteria Belarus bioassays biological catchment cells chemical Chernivtsi chromium compounds concentration contamination cost Dangerous Pollutants Xenobiotics decrease denitrification discharge Dojran Lake drinking water E-mail effluent embryos environment environmental evaluation exposure Figure fish flow flow cytometry fulvic acid ground water groundwater Hlavinek humic impact indicated industrial infiltration inflow inhibition karst larvae measured membrane module methods mg/l monitoring municipal mutagenic natural water nitrification Obninsk organic ORP and pH outbreak oxidation parameters PCBs pesticides pharmaceuticals photocatalytic PPCPs rainbow trout removal Research reservoirs respirometry retention reuse risk river samples sativum sediments sewage sewer system sewerage Slovak Slovakia soil sources storm water stormwater substances surface water Table tank tritium Urban Water Cycle values viruses waste water treatment wastewater treatment plants Water Cycle water management water pollution water quality water resources water supply WWTP xenobiotics