Geology of New Jersey, Volume 1

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Daily Advertiser Off., 1868 - Geology - 899 pages
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Page 371 - ... magnolia grandiflora, oak, ash, sweet bay, and other timber trees, the same as are now growing on the river swamps, whose surface is two feet or more above the spring tides that flow at this day. And it is plainly to be seen by every planter along the coast of Carolina, Georgia, and Florida, to the...
Page 2 - North, and on the South side thereof the words New Jersey and on the north side thereof the words New York, and to mark every tree that may stand in the said line with five notches and a blaze on the northwest and southeast sides thereof and to put up stone monuments at one mile distance from each other along the said line, and to number such monuments the number of miles the same shall be from the before mentioned rock on the wes-t side of Hudson's River, and mark the words New Jersey...
Page 340 - The production of peat from fallen and decaying plants depends upon the presence of so much water as to cover or saturate the vegetable matters, and thereby hinder the full access of air. Saturation with water also has the effect to maintain the decaying matters at a low temperature, and by these two causes in combination, the process of decay is made to proceed with great slowness, and the solid products of such slow decay are compounds that themselves resist decay and hence they accumulate. In...
Page 440 - Found in places where no capital and but very little labor were needed to get it, the poorest have been able to avail themselves of its benefits. Lands, which in the old style of cultivation had to lie fallow, by the use of marl produce heavy crops of clover and grow rich while resting. Thousands of acres of...
Page 371 - I even suspect that this coast is now sinking down, at a slow and insensible rate, for the sea is encroaching and gaining at many points on the freshwater marshes.
Page 359 - ... since a canal was dug across the marsh, from Washington to French's landing, to cut off some of the bends in South river, and the Raritan. The marsh cut through was from one to four feet deep, with a sandy bottom. Hundreds of stumps of the common yellow pine of the country, were found with their roots still firm in the sand as they grew ; and though most of them were removed, a few are still to be seen at low water. The general impression at Washington is that the tides are fuller now than formerly....
Page 534 - Stratified deposits imply that they are included within sedimentary rocks, that they are of aqueous origin, and that they coincide in geological position and in the mode of formation with the rocks in which they are situated. From the facts that have already been stated, they must be referred to this class of metalliferous deposits. That the rocky formation of this district, including the gneiss, the hornblende and mica schists, the magnetic iron ore, and the...
Page 440 - It has raised it from the lowest stage of agricultural exhaustation to a high state of improvement. Found in places where no capital and but little labor were needed to get it, the poorest have been able to avail themselves of its benefits. Lands which, in the old style of cultivation, had to lie fallow, by the use of marl produce heavy crops of clover, and grow rich while resting. Thousands of acres of land, which had been worn out and left in commons, are now, by the use of this fertilizer, yielding...
Page 352 - ... and a considerable business is carried on in mining this timber and splitting it into shingles for market. In some places it is found so near the surface that fragments of the roots and branches are seen projecting above the marsh, while in other cases, the whole is covered with smooth meadow sods, and there is no indication of what is beneath till it is sounded by thrusting a rod down into the mud. It is...
Page 342 - ... surveyors, the marsh wears away, on an average, about one rod in two years ; and, from the early maps, it would appear to have been going on at that rate ever since the first settlement of the country.

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