Plant Breeding: Mendelian to Molecular Approaches
H.K. Jain, M.C. Kharkwal
Springer Netherlands, Aug 26, 2004 - Science - 811 pages
The Indian Society of Genetics and Plant Breeding was established in 1941 in recognition of the growing contribution of improved crop varieties to the country's agriculture. Scientific plant breeding had started inIndia soon after the rediscovery of Mendel's laws of heredity. The Indian Agricultural Research Institute set up in 1905 and a number of Agricultural Colleges in different parts of the country carried out some of the earliest work mostly inthe form of pure-line selections. In subsequent years, hybridization programmes in crops like wheat, rice, oilseeds, grain legumes, sugarcane and cotton yielded a large number of improved cultivars with significantly higher yields. A turning point came in the 1960s with the development of hybrids in several crops including inter-specific hybrids in cotton. And when new germplasm with dwarfing genes became available in wheat and rice from CIMMYT and IRRI, respectively,Indian plant breeders quickly incorporated these genes into the genetic background of the country's widely grown varieties with excellent grain quality and other desirable traits. This was to mark the beginning of modem agriculture in India as more and more varieties were developed, characterized by a high harvest index and response to modem farm inputs like the inorganic fertilizers . India's green revolution which has led to major surpluses offood grains and othercommodities like sugar and cotton has been made possible by the work of one of the largest groups of plant breeders working in a coordinated network.
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abiotic stresses Agricultural Agron alleles analysis apomixis Appl Arabidopsis barley Brassica Brassica juncea breeders cereals chromosome CIMMYT clones crop improvement Crop Sci crosses cultivars culture cytoplasm cytoplasmic male sterility Delhi disease diversity drought effects environment environmental epistasis evaluation expression flowering genetic mapping genetic resources genome genotypes germplasm grain yield haploids heterosis heterotic high yield hybrid seed identified inbred lines increase India induced mutations interaction Kharkwal large number leaf rust legumes linkage map loci locus maize male sterility method molecular markers mutation breeding N2-fixation napus Natl nodulation Oryza paramutation parents pearl millet phenotypic plant breeding Plant Cell pollen polymorphism population potential Proc progenies programme protein QTLs quantitative trait RAPD recombination recurrent selection resistance gene retrotransposons RFLP rice rust resistance sativa seed production segregating sequences Singh sorghum soybean species stability studies techniques temperature Theor tolerance tomato transposon Triticum variability variation varieties wheat Y-rays