The Crescent and the Eagle: Ottoman Rule, Islam and the Albanians, 1874-1913
A balanced and original picture of Ottoman rule and the Albanians during a critical period of Balkan and Middle East history. The Crescent and the Eagle examines the awakening of Albanian national identity from the end of the 19th century to the outbreak of the First World War - a period of intense nationalism in the Balkans - from an Ottoman perspective. Drawing on Ottoman and European archival and other primary source material, Gawrych contradicts and undermines the usual negative stereotypes of Ottoman rule. Instead he provides a critical but objective examination of the evolution of government policies toward Albanians, from attempts to mold them into an "iron barrier" to establishing a uniform system of administration. The author also analyzes the general problems of endemic violence and misadministration at the provincial level, and examines Albanian efforts to gain nationality rights and maintain local privileges and tribal autonomy. A stimulating study which offers many fresh insights into the dynamics of power within the Ottoman Empire.
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Abdul Abdulhamid Ahmed Cevdet Albanian language Albanian National Awakening alphabet Arabic areas Arnavud Arnavutlar Arnavutluk autonomy Balkans Bektasi Besa Besa yahud Ahde Bulgarians Christian Committee Constitution Debre Dervis Hima Despite Elbasan empire's Ergiri ethnic European fellow Albanians Firzovik foreign Frasheri Gegalik Gegs Gorice government officials grand vezir Greek Gusinye Hamidian Haziran Ibid Ipek Isa Boletin Iskodra Islam Ismail Kemal Istanbul July Revolution Kamus al-A'lam kavim kaza Kosova Kosovar Albanians League of Prizren Macedonia Mahmud Sevket major Malisors Manastir Merdita military millet Montenegro motherland Muslim Muslim Albanians nationalist Niyazi number of Albanian Orthodox Osmanli Ottoman Army Ottoman Empire Ottoman government Ottoman officials Pasa Pashko Vasa political population province reforms region religious Revolution Rumeli sancak schools Semseddin Sami Serbia Serbs Skendi sultan Tanin Tanzimat Temmuz Tosk Tosk Albanians Toskalik town tribal tribes troops Turkish Unionist Societies Uskiip vatan vilayet Vlachs yahud Ahde Vefa Yanya Yenipazar