## Principles of Cosmology and GravitationGeneral relativity and quantum mechanics have become the two central pillars of theoretical physics. Moreover, general relativity has important applications in astrophysics and high-energy particle physics. Covering the fundamentals of the subject, Principles of Cosmology and Gravitation describes the universe as revealed by observations and presents a theoretical framework to enable important cosmological formulae to be derived and numerical calculations performed. Avoiding elaborate formal discussions, the book presents a practical approach that focuses on the general theory of relativity. It examines different evolutionary models and the gravitational effects of massive bodies. The book also includes a large number of worked examples and problems, half with solutions. |

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### Contents

Cosmography | 3 |

Physical basis of general relativity | 23 |

Curved spacetime and the physical mathematics of general | 47 |

General relativity near massive objects | 74 |

Cosmic kinematics | 103 |

Cosmic dynamics | 119 |

In the beginning | 140 |

Labelling astronomical objects | 159 |

Useful numbers | 175 |

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### Common terms and phrases

acceleration apparent apply assume black hole body calculate called clocks close clusters collapse consider constant contraction coordinate corresponds cosmic cosmology curvature curved defined density derived describe determined direction discuss distance Earth effects emitted employed energy equal equation expanding experiment factor fall field figure flat follows force formula frame function galaxies geodesic given gives gravitational inertial frames infinite involves light luminosity magnitude mass matter means measured metric motion moving negative Newton's Newtonian mechanics object observed obtain occur orbit origin particles path photons physics planet positive possible precisely predicted present principle proper quantities radiation radius red shift relation relativity remains rest result rotating scale separation shows simply sources space spacetime special relativity speed sphere stars surface tensor theory tion transformation universe world line write zero