## Principles of Cosmology and GravitationGeneral relativity and quantum mechanics have become the two central pillars of theoretical physics. Moreover, general relativity has important applications in astrophysics and high-energy particle physics. Covering the fundamentals of the subject, Principles of Cosmology and Gravitation describes the universe as revealed by observations and presents a theoretical framework to enable important cosmological formulae to be derived and numerical calculations performed. Avoiding elaborate formal discussions, the book presents a practical approach that focuses on the general theory of relativity. It examines different evolutionary models and the gravitational effects of massive bodies. The book also includes a large number of worked examples and problems, half with solutions. |

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### Contents

Physical basis of general relativity | 23 |

Curved spacetime and the physical mathematics of general | 47 |

General relativity near massive objects | 74 |

Cosmic kinematics | 103 |

Cosmic dynamics | 119 |

In the beginning | 140 |

Labelling astronomical objects | 159 |

Problems | 165 |

Useful numbers | 175 |

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absolute luminosity absolute space acceleration angle angular momentum apparent luminosity apparent magnitude atoms big bang black hole black-body body calculate centre Cepheids clocks clusters collapse comoving coordinate system corresponds cosmic distance cosmic fluid cosmical constant cosmology curvature curved defined Earth Einstein's emitted energy equation figure flat force function galactic galaxies geodesics given gives gravitational field Hubble's Hubble's constant Hubble's law inertial frames infinite inhomogeneity laboratory light light-years luminosity Mach's principle matter matter-dominated era measured metric tensor model universes motion negative Newton's Newtonian mechanics object horizon observed obtain orbit parallax particles photons physics planet position space possible predicted proper distance quantities r-sphere R(to radiation radius red shift relativistic result rmin rotating Schwarzschild Schwarzschild radius spacetime special relativity speed sphere stars steady state theory surface temperature theory three-dimensional tion transformation velocity world line zero