## Principles of Cosmology and GravitationGeneral relativity and quantum mechanics have become the two central pillars of theoretical physics. Moreover, general relativity has important applications in astrophysics and high-energy particle physics. Covering the fundamentals of the subject, Principles of Cosmology and Gravitation describes the universe as revealed by observations and presents a theoretical framework to enable important cosmological formulae to be derived and numerical calculations performed. Avoiding elaborate formal discussions, the book presents a practical approach that focuses on the general theory of relativity. It examines different evolutionary models and the gravitational effects of massive bodies. The book also includes a large number of worked examples and problems, half with solutions. |

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### Contents

Cosmography | 3 |

Physical basis of general relativity | 23 |

Curved spacetime and the physical mathematics of general | 47 |

General relativity near massive objects | 74 |

Cosmic kinematics | 103 |

Cosmic dynamics | 119 |

In the beginning | 140 |

Labelling astronomical objects | 159 |

Useful numbers | 175 |

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### Common terms and phrases

absolute luminosity absolute space acceleration angle angular momentum apparent luminosity apparent magnitude atoms big bang black hole black-body body calculate centre Cepheids clocks clusters collapse comoving coordinate system corresponds cosmic distance cosmic fluid cosmical constant cosmology curvature curved defined distance hierarchy Earth Einstein's electromagnetic emitted energy Euclidean figure flat function galactic given gives gravitational field Hubble's constant Hubble's law inertial frames infinite inhomogeneity laboratory light-years luminosity Mach's principle matter measured metric tensor model universes motion negative Newton's Newtonian mechanics object horizon observed obtain orbit parallax particles photons physics planet position space possible precession predicted proper distance quantities r-sphere radiation radio red shift relativistic result rmln Robertson-Walker metric rotating scale factor Schwarzschild Schwarzschild radius separation formula spacetime spatial special relativity speed sphere stars steady state model steady state theory surface temperature theory tion transformation velocity world line zero