Peacemaking in Early Modern Europe: Cardinal Mazarin and the Congress of Westphalia, 1643-1648
In 1648, after five years of negotiations. France signed the Peace of Westphalia. The treaties not only ended a long war with the Holy Roman Empire, but also transferred large parts of Alsace and Lorraine to France. This book is the first full-length study of the French negotiating position: who formulated it, why, and how it changed over time.
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Negotiating While Fighting
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12 August 14 April Alerheim allies APW II B1 APW IIB Armee d'Allemagne attack August Axel Oxenstierna battle battle of Freiburg Bavarian BN Mf Breisach Brienne to plenipotentiaries campaign capture cavalry Clerc commander court d'Avaux D'Avaux to Mazarin December defensive Dickmann diplomatic Dutch emperor Empire enemy Enghien February fols footnote forces fortress France France's Freiburg French demands French plenipotentiaries garrison Habsburgs Heilbronn Immler Imperial infantry January July June Kurfiirst Maximilian Leopold Wilhelm letter Lionne to Servien Longueville to Mazarin Lorraine Louis XIV March Maximilian Mazarin to Longueville Mazarin to plenipotentiaries Mazarin to Turenne Mercy Miinster negotiations November orders Paris peace Peace of Westphalia Philippsburg plenipotentiaries to Brienne Plenipotentiaries to Mazarin Rhine Richelieu Salvius September 1645 Servien to Lionne siege Spain Spanish strategy Sundgau Sweden Swedish talks Tellier territory tion towns Tracy Trauttmansdorff treaty troops truce Turenne to Mazarin Turenne's Tuttlingen Vervaux Westfalische Frieden Westphalia wrote XIV to plenipotentiaries