Audels Engineers and Mechanics Guide, Volume 7

Front Cover
T. Audel & Company, 1921 - Steam engineering

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Page 2-833 - Shoulder Nipple. — A nipple of any length, which has a portion of pipe between two pipe threads. As generally used, however, it is a nipple about halfway between the length of a close nipple and a short nipple.
Page 3-247 - Fig. 20 (page 498), it has been found possible to change from full speed in one direction to full speed in the opposite direction in 5 seconds.
Page 2-831 - Cross-Over. — A small fitting like a double offset or the letter " U " with ends turned out. It is only made in small sizes and used to pass the flow of one pipe past another when the pipes are in the same plane.
Page 2-953 - At the ordinary atmospheric pressure (14.7 Ibs. per sq. in.) its temperature is 212 F. As the pressure is increased, as by the steam being generated in a closed vessel, its temperature, and that of the water in its presence, increases. Saturated Steam is steam of the temperature due to its pressure — not superheated.
Page 2-832 - A fitting having a larger size at one end than at the other. Some have tried to establish the term "increaser" — thinking of direction of flow, but this has arisen from a misunderstanding of the trade custom of always giving the largest size of run of a fitting first; hence, all fittings having more than one size are reducers. They are always inside thread, unless specified flanged or for some special joint. (2) Threaded type is made with abrupt reduction. (3) Flanged pattern has taper body. (4)...
Page 3-310 - The principle of a knot is that no two parts, which would move in the same direction if the rope were to slip, should lay along side of and touching each other.
Page 2-831 - A header is a large pipe into which one set of boilers is connected by suitable nozzles or tees, or similar large pipes from which a number of smaller ones lead to consuming points. Headers are often used for other purposes — for heaters or in refrigeration work.
Page 2-830 - Branch Pipe. — A very general term used to signify a pipe either cast or wrought, that is equipped with one or more branches. Many such pipes are used so frequently that they have acquired common names such as tees, crosses, side or back outlet elbows, manifolds, double branch elbows, etc. The term branch pipe is generally restricted to such as do not conform to usual dimensions.
Page 2-832 - LEAD JOINT. — (1) Generally used to signify the connection between pipes which is made by pouring molten lead into the annular space between a bell and spigot, and then making the lead tight by calking. (2) Rarely used to mean the joint made by pressing the lead between adjacent pieces, as when a lead gasket is used between flanges. Lead wool may be used in place of molten lead for making pipe joints.
Page 2-833 - Short Nipple. — One whose length is a little greater than that of two threaded lengths or somewhat longer than a close nipple. It always has some unthreaded portion between the two threads.

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