Magnetic Information Storage Technology: A Volume in the ELECTROMAGNETISM Series

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Academic Press, May 24, 1999 - Science - 536 pages
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This text explains how hard disk drives operate, how billions of bytes of digital information are stored and accessed, and where the technology is going. In particular, the book emphasizes the most fundamental principles of magnetic information storage, including in-depth knowledge of both magnetics and signal processing methods. Magnetic Information Storage Technology contains many graphic illustrations and an introduction of alternative storage technologies, such as optic disk recording, holographic recording, semiconductor flash memory, and magnetic random access memory.


* Provides the fundamentals of magnetic information storage and contrasts it with a comparison of alternative storage technologies
* Addresses the subject at the materials, device and system levels
* Addresses the needs of the multi-billion-dollar-a year magnetic recording and information storage industry
* Emphasizes both theoretical and experimental concepts
* Condenses current knowledge on magnetic information storage technology into one self-contained volume
* Suitable for undergraduate and graduate students, as well as seasoned researchers, engineers and professionals in data and information storage fields
 

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Contents

85 PRINCIPLES OF ERROR DETECTION AND CORRECTION
220
851 Error detection by parity checking
222
852 Hamming distance and error detectioncorrection theorems
224
853 Cyclic codes
226
854 Matrix formulation of ECC
231
Noises
236
91 NOISE FORMULATION
237
911 Power spectral density
238

125 Magnetic anisotropy
23
126 Magnetic domains
26
127 Magnetization process
27
Fundamentals of Inductive Recording Head and Magnetic Medium
34
22 INDUCTIVE RECORDING HEADS
38
222 Head magnetic circuit
43
23 MAGNETIC RECORDING MEDIUM
45
231 Magnetic fields of step transition
46
232 Magnetic fields of finite transition
47
Read Process in Magnetic Recording
52
32 READBACK FROM SINGLE TRANSITION
55
33 READBACK FROM MULTIPLE TRANSITIONS
59
331 Linear bit shift
60
332 Squarewave recording and rolloff
61
Write Process in Magnetic Recording
68
411 WilliamsComstock model
70
412 Head imaging and relaxation effects
76
413 Demagnetization limit
78
42 NONLINEARITIES IN WRITE PROCESS
79
Inductive Magnetic Heads
84
51 MODELING OF INDUCTIVE HEADS
85
512 Transmission line models
88
513 Finite element and boundary element modeling
91
514 Micromagnetic models
93
522 Headslider form factor
99
53 INDUCTIVE HEAD AS READER
102
532 Readback noises of inductive readers
103
54 INDUCTIVE HEAD AS WRITER
106
541 Write head design considerations
107
542 Head field rise time
110
55 SIDE READ SIDE WRITE AND SIDE ERASE
113
551 Side fringing field
114
552 Side readwriteerase
115
553 Track profile
116
56 HIGHSATURATION INDUCTIVE HEAD MATERIALS
117
561 Requirements of inductive head materials
118
562 Survey of new inductive head materials
120
Magnetoresistive Heads
126
62 MAGNETORESISTIVE READ HEAD AND BIAS SCHEMES
128
621 Transverse bias of magnetoresistive heads
131
622 Longitudinal bias of magnetoresistive heads
136
63 MAGNETORESISTIVE HEAD READBACK ANALYSIS
141
631 Reciprocity principle for magnetoresistive heads
142
632 Small gap and thin medium limit
147
633 Advantage of magnetoresistive over inductive read head
149
634 Fourier transform of magnetoresistive head read signal
150
635 Transmission line model of magnetoresistive heads
151
64 PRACTICAL ASPECTS OF MAGNETORESISTIVE HEADS
153
641 Side reading asymmetry
154
642 Readback nonlinearity
157
643 Baseline shift
158
644 Thermal asperity
160
645 Electrostatic discharge sensitivity
161
65 FABRICATION OF MR HEADS
162
652 Materials used in magnetoresistive head fabrication
165
66 GIANT MAGNETORESISTIVE GMR HEADS
166
662 GMR read heads
171
663 Tunneling magnetoresistive effect
174
Magnetic Recording Media
180
71 MAGNETIC MEDIUM REQUIREMENTS
181
72 PARTICULATE MEDIA
182
73 THINFILM MEDIA
183
732 Microstructures of the underlayer and magnetic layer
185
733 Tribological requirements
190
734 Fabrication of lownoise thinfilm disks
192
735 Thermal stability of bits
194
74 KEEPERED MEDIA
195
741 Effect of keeper on spacing loss
196
742 Modulated head efficiency model
197
743 Extension to magnetoresistive heads
200
75 PATTERNED MEDIA
201
751 Singledomain particles and superparamagnetic limit
202
752 Readwrite processes and noises in patterned media
203
753 Challenges in patterned media
205
Channel Coding and Error Correction
210
82 CHANNEL BIT REPRESENTATION BY NRZ AND NRZI DATA
212
83 RUNLENGTH LIMITED RLL CODES
215
84 USER DATA RATE CHANNEL DATA RATE AND FLUX FREQUENCY
218
912 Autocorrelation
240
913 Power spectral density of noise and signal
241
92 MEDIUM NOISE MECHANISMS
244
921 Transition noise
245
922 Participate medium noise
250
923 Modulation noise
256
93 HEAD AND ELECTRONICS NOISES
259
94 SNR CONSIDERATIONS FOR MAGNETIC RECORDING
260
95 EXPERIMENTAL MEASUREMENTS OF SNR
263
951 Peaksignaltoerasedmediumnoise measurement
264
952 Spectrum analyzer measurement of SNR
265
953 Crosscorrelation measurement of SNR
267
Nonlinear Distortions
270
1012 Overwrite
276
1013 Overwrite at a frequency ratio of 2
278
1014 Overwrite at different frequency ratios
281
1015 Spectrum of the overwrite signal
287
102 NONLINEAR TRANSITION SHIFT NLTS 1021 NLTS in dibit
290
1022 Precompensation of NLTS
294
1023 Interactions of NLTS with HTS
296
1024 NLTS in a series of transitions
302
1025 Data rate effects and timing NLTS
310
103 MEASUREMENT OF NONLINEAR TRANSITION SHIFT
317
1032 Methods based on pseudorandom sequences
326
1033 Comparison of spectral elimination and pseudorandom methods
331
104 PARTIAL ERASURE
334
105 MAGNETORESISTIVE READ HEAD NONLINEARITY
338
Peak Detection Channel
348
112 BER AT THE THRESHOLD DETECTOR
350
113 BER AT THE ZEROCROSSING DETECTOR
352
114 WINDOW MARGIN AND BITSHIFT DISTRIBUTION
356
PRML Channels
364
1211 PR4 channel
366
1212 Maximum likelihood detector
370
122 PARTIAL RESPONSE
372
1222 Partialresponse polynomial and classification
375
1223 Channel and user densities of PR4 EPR4 and E2PR4 channels
383
1224 Principles of equalization
384
123 CLOCK AND GAIN RECOVERY
391
124 MAXIMUM LIKELIHOOD DETECTION
396
1242 Maximum likelihood or Viterbi detection algorithm
402
1243 Interleave and sliding threshold in PR4 channel
406
1244 Error events in maximum likelihood detection
411
125 PRML ERROR MARGIN ANALYSIS
418
126 PERFORMANCE OF PRML CHANNELS
424
Decision Feedback Channels
436
132 FIXEDDEPTH TREE SEARCH WITH DECISION FEEDBACK AND 17 CODE
440
133 EQUALIZATION FOR MDFE CHANNEL
445
134 ERROR RATE OF MDFE CHANNEL AND ERROR PROPAGATION
447
OffTrack Performance
454
142 TRACK MISREGISTRATION AND OFFTRACK PERFORMANCE
456
143 OFFTRACK CAPABILITY AND 747 CURVE
459
HeadDisk Assembly Servo
470
152 SECTOR SERVO DISK FORMAT
472
153 POSITION ERROR SIGNAL
475
Fundamental Limitations of Magnetic Recording
482
161 SUPERPARAMAGNETISM AND TIMEDEPENDENT COERCIVITY
483
1612 Magnetic viscosity or aftereffect
485
1613 Timedependent coercivity
489
162 DYNAMIC EFFECTS IN MEDIUM HEAD AND ELECTRONICS
491
1621 Medium switching time
492
Alternative Information Storage Technologies
498
1711 CDROM
499
1712 DVD
502
1713 Phasechange optical recording
504
1714 Magnetooptic recording
506
1715 Optical head
510
1716 RLL codes in optical disk recording
514
1717 Servomechanism of optical head
516
172 HOLOGRAPHIC RECORDING
519
1722 Photorefractive effect
521
1723 Holographic recording system
523
1724 Theoretical capacity and practical limitations of holographic recording
524
173 FLASH MEMORY
525
1732 Programerase endurance
527
174 MAGNETIC RAM
529
Index
534
Copyright

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Page v - Electromagnetism is a classical area of physics and engineering that still plays a very important role in the development of new technology. Electromagnetism often serves as a link between electrical engineers, material scientists, and applied physicists. This series presents volumes on those aspects of applied and theoretical electromagnetism that are becoming increasingly important in modern and rapidly development technology.
Page viii - Elsevier Series in Electromagnetism (Series formerly known as Academic Press Series in Electromagnetism) Edited by ISAAK MAYERGOYZ, University of Maryland, College Park, USA Electromagnetism is a classical area of physics and engineering that still plays a very important role in the development of new technology. Electromagnetism often serves as a link between electrical engineers, material scientists, and applied physicists. This series presents volumes on those aspects...

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Wang is affiliated with The Bloomfield Centre for Research in Aging.

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