## A Software-Defined GPS and Galileo Receiver: A Single-Frequency ApproachSatellite navigation receivers are used to receive, process, and decode space-based navigation signals, such as those provided by the GPS constellation of satellites. There is an increasing need for a unified open platform that will enable enhanced receiver development and design, as well as cost-effective testing procedures for various applications. This book provide hands-on exploration of new technologies in this rapidly growing field. One of the unique features of the work is the interactive approach used, giving readers the ability to construct their own Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS) receivers. To construct such a reconfigurable receiver with a wide range of applications, the authors discuss receiver architecture based on software-defined radio (SDR) techniques. The presentation unfolds in a systematic, user-friendly style and goes from the basics to cutting-edge research. Additional features and topics include: * Presentation of basic signal structures used in GPS and Galileo, the European satellite navigation system * Design and implementation of a GPS signal generator * Presentation and analysis of different methods of signal acquisition—serial search; parallel-frequency space search; and parallel-code phase search—as well as code/carrier tracking and navigation data decoding * A complete GPS software receiver implemented using MATLAB code as well as GPS and GIOVE-A signal records allowing readers to change various parameters and immediately see their effects * MATLAB-based exercises * A hands-on method of testing the material covered in the book: supplementary front-end hardware equipment—which may be purchased at http://ccar.colorado.edu/gnss—enables readers working on a Windows or LINUX system to generate real-world data by converting analog signals to digital signals * Supplementary course material for instructors available at http://gps.aau.dk/softgps * Bibliography of recent results and comprehensive index The book is aimed at applied mathematicians, electrical engineers, geodesists, and graduate students. It may be used as a textbook in various GPS technology and signal processing courses, or as a self-study reference for anyone working with satellite navigation receivers. |

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### Contents

Signals and Systems | 1 |

111 ContinuousTime Deterministic Signals | 2 |

112 DiscreteTime Deterministic Signals | 3 |

114 Rectangular Pulse | 4 |

115 Random Signals | 6 |

116 Random Sequence of Pulses | 7 |

12 Sampling | 8 |

13 Characterization of Systems | 9 |

623 Integration and Squaring | 78 |

64 Parallel Code Phase Search Acquisition | 81 |

65 Data Size | 84 |

66 Execution Time | 85 |

67 Parameter Estimation | 86 |

Carrier and Code Tracking | 87 |

73 SecondOrder PLL | 89 |

731 Damping Ratio | 92 |

14 Linear TimeInvariant Systems | 12 |

15 Representation of Bandpass Signals | 14 |

GPS Signal | 17 |

22 GPS Signal Scheme | 18 |

23 CA Code | 20 |

232 Gold Sequence GenerationOverview | 21 |

233 Gold Sequence GenerationDetails | 22 |

234 Correlation Properties | 25 |

24 Doppler Frequency Shift | 26 |

25 Code Tracking | 27 |

26 Navigation Data | 28 |

261 Telemetry and Handover Words | 29 |

262 Data in Navigation Message | 30 |

Galileo Signal | 31 |

32 Galileo L1 OS Signal | 33 |

321 Signal Generation | 34 |

322 Coherent Adaptive Subcarrier Modulation | 35 |

323 Binary Offset Carrier Modulation | 37 |

33 Message Structure | 42 |

333 Forward Error Correction and Block Interleaving | 43 |

34 Message Contents | 45 |

341 Time and Clock Correction Parameters | 46 |

342 Conversion of GST to UTC and GPST | 48 |

343 Service Parameters | 49 |

35 The Received L1 OS Signal | 50 |

GNSS Antennas and Front Ends | 52 |

42 GNSS L1 FrontEnd Components | 55 |

422 Filter | 57 |

423 Ampliﬁer | 59 |

425 AnalogtoDigital Converter | 61 |

43 Resulting Sampled Data | 64 |

44 GNSS FrontEnd ASIC | 66 |

GNSS Receiver Operation Overview | 69 |

511 Acquisition | 70 |

512 Tracking | 71 |

513 Navigation Data Extraction | 72 |

52 Computation of Position | 73 |

Acquisition | 74 |

62 Serial Search Acquisition | 76 |

621 PRN Sequence Generation | 77 |

74 Carrier Tracking | 93 |

75 Code Tracking | 96 |

76 Multipath | 101 |

77 Complete Tracking Block | 106 |

78 Pseudorange Computations | 107 |

Data Processing for Positioning | 109 |

82 Navigation Data Decoding | 110 |

822 Extracting the Navigation Data | 111 |

83 Computation of Satellite Position | 114 |

84 Pseudorange Estimation | 119 |

842 Estimation of Subsequent Pseudoranges | 120 |

85 Computation of Receiver Position | 121 |

852 Linearization of the Observation Equation | 122 |

853 Using the LeastSquares Method | 123 |

854 RealTime Positioning Accuracy | 125 |

87 Coordinate Transformations | 127 |

88 Universal Transverse Mercator Mapping | 129 |

89 Dilution of Precision | 130 |

810 World Geodetic System 1984 | 133 |

811 Time and Coordinate Reference Frames for GPS and Galileo | 134 |

Problems | 137 |

MATLAB Code | 142 |

A2 The settings Structure | 144 |

A3 Acquisition Function | 145 |

A4 Tracking Function | 147 |

A5 Function postNavigation | 148 |

A51 Pseudorange Computation | 149 |

A52 Position Computation | 150 |

GNSS Signal Simulation | 153 |

B2 Simulink Implementation | 154 |

B22 Navigation Data Generation | 157 |

B23 P Code Generation | 158 |

B3 Galileo Signal Generator | 159 |

B4 Differences in Processing GPS and Galileo Signals | 161 |

B41 Signal Differences | 162 |

B5 Differences in Signal Processing | 164 |

168 | |

171 | |