## Finite element methods in the commercial environment: papers presented at the Second World Congress on Finite Element Methods, 23-27 October, 1978, the Royal Bath Hotel, Bournemouth, Dorset, England, Volume 1 |

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### Contents

FINITE ELEMENT METHOD SIMULATION OF EXCAVATIONS IN SQUEEZING | 7 |

FRANKLIN J A Franklin Trow Associates Ltd Rock Engineering | 8 |

A FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS OF THERMAL BUCKLING OF RAILWAY TRACKS | 31 |

Copyright | |

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### Common terms and phrases

accuracy applied beam behaviour boundary conditions buckling calculated components constant constraints convergence tests coupling crack closure crack tip deformation degrees of freedom discussed displacement displacement vector effect elastic energy Engineering equation equilibrium evaluation excavation finite element analysis finite element method finite element model formulation fracture mechanics frequencies geometry geosynchronous orbit initial integration interface isoparametric shell elements linear low earth orbit membrane element mesh mode shapes modulus NASTRAN nodal forces node non-linear number of elements obtained orbit paper parameters plane plane strain plastic plate bending elements Poisson's ratio presented problem procedure quadrilateral raft ratio rectangular reduced rock rotation shape functions shear shown in Figure simulation single element test soil solar Solar Power Satellite solution stability stiffness matrix strain stress intensity factor structure STS elements surface technique temperature thermal TOPAS tunnel vector vibration zero