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Adam Smith advantage afford agricultural laborers amount average become body of laborers Cairnes capitalist cause cent CHAPTER competition condition cooperation cost degree diminishing diminishing returns distribution doctrine earnings Econ economical economists effect efficiency of labor employer employing class employment England English exist fact factories force France increase Industrial Classes interest Ireland J. S. Mill laborer's laboring classes laboring power laissez faire land less loss manufacture matter ment mobility nature necessary wages number of laborers occupations operations paid payment perfect competition perhaps persons ployers political economy population portion principle production Prof profits proportion question reason receive reduced remuneration rent Report respect result returns of capital Russia Scotland shillings social society Statistical Journal strikes subsistence term tion trade truck truck system wage-fund wage-laborer wages class waste wealth women workmen
Page 78 - The wages of labour are the encouragement of industry, which, like every other human quality, improves in proportion to the encouragement it receives. A plentiful subsistence increases the bodily strength of the labourer, and the comfortable hope of bettering his condition and of ending his days, perhaps, in ease and plenty animates him to exert that strength to the utmost. Where wages are high, accordingly, we shall always find the workmen more active, diligent, and expeditious than where they are...
Page 364 - It predicts only such of the phenomena of the social state as take place in consequence of the pursuit of wealth. It makes entire abstraction of every other human passion or motive ; except those which may be regarded as perpetually antagonizing principles to the desire of wealth ; namely, aversion to labour, and desire of the present enjoyment of costly indulgences.
Page 193 - The whole of the advantages and disadvantages of the different employments of labour and stock must, in the same neighbourhood, be either perfectly equal or continually tending to equality. If, in the same neighbourhood, there was any employment evidently either more or less advantageous than the rest, so many people would crowd into it in the one case, and so many would desert it in the other, that its advantages would soon return to the level of the other employments.
Page 122 - ... can well fall into without extreme bad conduct. Custom, in the same manner, has rendered leather shoes a necessary of life in England. The poorest creditable person of either sex would be ashamed to appear in public without them.
Page 73 - Give a man the secure possession of a bleak rock, and he will turn it into a garden ; give him * Arthur Young's Trtnelt m francl, ml. ip 88. « Ibid. p. 61. a nine years lease of a garden, and he will convert it into a desert.
Page 390 - It laid down that: if any artificers, workmen or labourers do conspire, covenant or promise together or make any oaths that they shall not make or do their works but at a certain price and rate, or shall not enterprise or take upon them to finish that another hath begun, or shall do but a certain work in a day, or shall not work but at certain hours and times...
Page 302 - Because a great part of the people, and especially of workmen and servants, late died of the pestilence, many seeing the necessity of masters, and great scarcity of servants, will not serve unless they may receive excessive wages...
Page 326 - Realm only, and not otherwise ; and that if in any such Contract the Whole or any Part of such Wages shall be made payable in any Manner other than in the current Coin aforesaid, such Contract shall be and is hereby declared illegal, null, and void.
Page 390 - We rarely hear, it has been said, of the combinations of masters, though frequently of those of workmen. But whoever imagines, upon this account, that masters rarely combine, is as ignorant of the world as of the subject. Masters are always and everywhere in a sort of tacit, but constant and uniform, combination, not to raise the wages of labour above their actual rate.