Rocket and Spacecraft Propulsion: Principles, Practice and New Developments

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Springer Science & Business Media, Nov 5, 2008 - Technology & Engineering - 414 pages

The 3rd edition of this practical, hands-on book discusses the range of launch vehicles in use today throughout the world, and includes the very latest details of some of the advanced propulsion systems currently being developed. The author covers the fundamentals of the subject, from the basic principles of rocket propulsion and vehicle dynamics through the theory and practice of liquid and solid propellant motors, to new and future developments. The didactic value of the early chapters on the basics of rocket propulsion, by re-working the derivations and updating the examples will be enhanced.

The 3rd edition will stick to the same principle of providing a serious exposition of the principles and practice of rocket propulsion, but from the point of view of the user and enquirer who is not an engineering specialist. Most chapters will remain substantially the same as the second edition; they will be updated where necessary and errata corrected. In particular the new chapters added for the second edition, on Electric and Nuclear propulsion will remain substantially the same.

In addition to general revision, updating and the correction of errata on all chapters, this updated edition will detail a number of new developments in the field Chapter 3 on Liquid propellant rocket engines will have new sections on air breathing engines and on new engines and propellants for the human exploration program. Chapter 8 will now de-emphasize the SSTO concepts, not longer seen as promising, and include new sections on variable thrust engines, again for human exploration. Other new developments following the announcement and subsequent development of NASA’s new man-rated launcher, the ARES, and its Constellation vehicle set. Also covered will be sub-orbital space tourist vehicles and the new rocket engines, which have been developed for them. A new chapter on man-rated launchers and their important characteristics will detail this. New interest in Lunar exploration and the need to supply Lunar bases exposes the requirement for high efficiency engines for Lunar transportation and storage of high energy propellants like liquid oxygen and liquid hydrogen. New engines designed for in-space transportation and Lunar landing and departure will be added to the relevant chapters.

 

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Selected pages

Contents

History and principles of rocket propulsion
1
111 The Russian space programme
6
113 The United States space programme
8
114 Commentary
13
12 NEWTONS THIRD LAW AND THE ROCKET EQUATION
14
13 ORBITS AND SPACEFLIGHT
17
131 Orbits
18
14 MULTISTAGE ROCKETS
25
62 REVIVED INTEREST IN ELECTRIC PROPULSION
167
631 Electric vehicle performance
168
632 Vehicle velocity as a function of exhaust velocity
169
633 Vehicle velocity and structuralpropellant mass
170
64 ELECTRIC THRUSTERS
171
641 Electrothermal thrusters
172
642 Arcjet thrusters
175
65 ELECTROMAGNETIC THRUSTERS
177

141 Optimising a multistage rocket
28
142 Optimising the rocket engines
30
143 Strapon boosters
32
15 ACCESS TO SPACE
34
The thermal rocket engine
37
22 THE DEVELOPMENT OF THRUST AND THE EFFECT OF THE ATMOSPHERE
39
221 Optimising the exhaust nozzle
43
23 THE THERMODYNAMICS OF THE ROCKET ENGINE
44
231 Exhaust velocity
46
232 Mass flow rate
48
24 THE THERMODYNAMIC THRUST EQUATION
53
241 The thrust coefficient and the characteristic velocity
54
25 COMPUTING ROCKET ENGINE PERFORMANCE
58
251 Specific impulse
59
252 Example calculations
60
26 WORKED EXAMPLE
62
27 SUMMARY
65
Liquid propellant rocket engines
66
32 THE COMBUSTION CHAMBER AND NOZZLE
68
321 Injection
69
322 Ignition
70
323 Combustion instability
73
324 Thrust vector control
78
33 LIQUID PROPELLANT DISTRIBUTION SYSTEMS
81
331 Cavitation
83
332 Pogo
84
34 COOLING OF LIQUIDFUELLED ROCKET ENGINES
85
35 EXAMPLES OF ROCKET ENGINE PROPELLANT FLOW
86
351 The Aestus engine on Ariane 5
87
352 The Ariane Viking engines
88
353 The Ariane HM7 B engine
90
354 The Vinci cryogenic upperstage engine for Ariane 5
91
355 The Ariane 5 Vulcain cryogenic engine
92
356 The Space Shuttle main engine
93
357 The RS 68 engine
96
36 COMBUSTION AND THE CHOICE OF PROPELLANTS
98
361 Combustion temperature
99
362 Molecular weight
100
363 Propellant physical properties
101
37 THE PERFORMANCE OF LIQUIDFUELLED ROCKET ENGINES
103
371 Liquid oxygenliquid hydrogen engines
104
373 Storable propellant engines
106
Solid propellant rocket motors
109
42 THE PROPERTIES AND THE DESIGN OF SOLID MOTORS
111
43 PROPELLANT COMPOSITION
112
431 Additives
114
432 Toxic exhaust
115
434 Thrust profile and grain shape
116
44 INTEGRITY OF THE COMBUSTION CHAMBER
118
441 Thermal protection
119
442 Intersection joints
120
443 Nozzle thermal protection
122
46 THRUST VECTOR CONTROL
123
472 The Ariane MPS
125
48 HYBRID ROCKET MOTORS
126
481 Hybrid motor history
127
482 The basic configuration of a hybrid motor
128
484 Combustion
130
485 Grain crosssection
131
486 Propulsive efficiency
132
487 Increasing the thrust
133
Launch vehicle dynamics
135
511 Range in the absence of gravity
137
52 VERTICAL MOTION IN THE EARTHS GRAVITATIONAL FIELD
140
522 Range
143
53 INCLINED MOTION IN A GRAVITATIONAL FIELD
144
532 The flight path at constant pitch angle
146
54 MOTION IN THE ATMOSPHERE
148
541 Aerodynamic forces
149
542 Dynamic pressure
150
55 THE GRAVITY TURN
151
56 BASIC LAUNCH DYNAMICS
153
561 Airless bodies
154
57 TYPICAL EARTHLAUNCH TRAJECTORIES
155
571 The vertical segment of the trajectory
156
573 Constant pitch or the vacuum trajectory
157
58 ACTUAL LAUNCH VEHICLE TRAJECTORIES
159
582 Ariane 4
162
583 Pegasus
163
Electric propulsion
165
651 Ion propulsion
178
652 The space charge limit
180
653 Electric field and potential
182
654 Ion thrust
183
655 Propellant choice
184
656 Deceleration grid
186
66 PLASMA THRUSTERS
189
661 Hall effect thrusters
191
662 Radiofrequency thrusters
197
67 LOWPOWER ELECTRIC THRUSTERS
199
68 ELECTRICAL POWER GENERATION
200
682 Solar generators
201
683 Radioactive thermal generators
202
684 Nuclear fission power generators
204
69 APPLICATIONS OF ELECTRIC PROPULSION
206
691 Station keeping
209
692 Low Earth orbit to geostationary orbit
210
693 Ninemonth oneway mission to Mars
211
610 WORKED EXAMPLE
213
611 DEEP SPACE 1 AND THE NSTAR ION ENGINE
215
612 SMART 1 AND THE PPS1350
217
Nuclear propulsion
219
71 POWER THRUST AND ENERGY
220
72 NUCLEAR FISSION BASICS
221
73 A SUSTAINABLE CHAIN REACTION
224
74 CALCULATING THE CRITICALITY
225
75 THE REACTOR DIMENSIONS AND NEUTRON LEAKAGE
228
76 CONTROL
231
77 REFLECTION
233
79 THERMAL STABILITY
234
710 THE PRINCIPLE OF NUCLEAR THERMAL PROPULSION
235
711 THE FUEL ELEMENTS
237
712 EXHAUST VELOCITY OF A NUCLEAR THERMAL ROCKET
239
713 INCREASING THE OPERATING TEMPERATURE
240
714 THE NUCLEAR THERMAL ROCKET ENGINE
243
7141 Radiation and its management
244
7142 Propellant flow and cooling
246
7143 The control drums
248
7144 Startup and shutdown
249
7145 The nozzle and thrust generation
250
715 POTENTIAL APPLICATIONS OF NUCLEAR ENGINES
251
716 OPERATIONAL ISSUES WITH THE NUCLEAR ENGINE
252
717 INTERPLANETARY TRANSFER MANOEUVRES
253
718 FASTER INTERPLANETARY JOURNEYS
255
719 HYDROGEN STORAGE
256
720 DEVELOPMENT STATUS OF NUCLEAR THERMAL ENGINES
258
721 ALTERNATIVE REACTOR TYPES
264
722 SAFETY ISSUES
265
723 NUCLEAR PROPELLED MISSIONS
269
Advanced thermal rockets
270
82 IMPROVING EFFICIENCY
274
83 THERMAL ROCKETS IN ATMOSPHERE AND THE SINGLE STAGE TO ORBIT
277
831 Velocity increment for single stage to orbit
278
832 Optimising the exhaust velocity in atmosphere
280
833 The rocket equation for variable exhaust velocity
282
84 PRACTICAL APPROACHES TO SSTO
283
85 PRACTICAL APPROACHES AND DEVELOPMENTS
286
86 AIRBREATHING ENGINES
294
87 VEHICLE DESIGN AND MISSION CONCEPT
297
871 Optimising the ascent
298
88 SSTO CONCEPTS
299
881 The use of aerodynamic lift for ascent
300
Human space flight and planetary exploration
303
911 Establishing the reliability of components
305
912 The test programme
306
92 CREWED LAUNCHERS AND REENTRY VEHICLES
310
93 PROJECT CONSTELLATION THE NEW NASA HUMAN SPACE FLIGHT PROGRAMME
334
931 The Orion spacecraft
336
932 The Ares I launcher
339
933 The Ares V launcher
342
94 SOFT LANDING AND PLANETARY EXPLORATION
343
941 The challenge of deep throttling
346
942 Deep throttling with cryogenic propellants
348
Orbital motion
350
Launcher survey
357
Ariane 5
373
Glossary of symbols
378
Further reading
383
Index
385
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Turner-De Montfort University, Leicester, UK

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