A Study of Thinking

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Transaction Publishers, Jan 1, 1986 - Psychology - 330 pages
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A Study of Thinking is a pioneering account of how human beings achieve a measure of rationality in spite of the constraints imposed by bias, limited attention and memory, and the risks of error imposed by pressures of time and ignorance. First published in 1956 and hailed at its appearance as a groundbreaking study, it is still read three decades later as a major contribution to our understanding of the mind. In their insightful new introduction, the authors relate the book to the cognitive revolution and its handmaiden, artificial intelligence.

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As we are facing the AI, we feeling strongly the language types are limiting us. The limitation means understanding formal and natural language in both. This book present this limitation to us as the first prevail of AI encountered.


On attributes and concepts
The process of concept attainment
Selection strategies in concept attainment
Reception strategies in concept attainment
On disjunctive concepts and their attainment
On categorizing with probabilistic cues
An overview
Language and categories

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Page vii - We may insist as much as we like that the human intellect is weak in comparison with human instincts, and be right in doing so. But nevertheless there is something peculiar about this weakness. The voice of the intellect is a soft one, but it does not rest until it has gained a hearing.
Page 2 - But were we to utilize fully our capacity for registering the differences in things and to respond to each event encountered as unique, we would soon be overwhelmed by the complexity of our environment.
Page 2 - To categorize is to render discriminably different things equivalent, to group the objects and events and people around us into classes, and to respond to them in terms of their class membership rather than their uniqueness (Bruner, Goodnow, and Austin, 1956, p.
Page 3 - house" as a concept, new exemplars can readily be recognized. The category becomes a tool for further use. The learning and utilization of categories represents one of the most elementary and general forms of cognition by which man adjusts to his environment.

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