Reasoning About Knowledge
MIT Press, Jan 9, 2004 - Business & Economics - 544 pages
Reasoning about knowledge—particularly the knowledge of agents who reason about the world and each other's knowledge—was once the exclusive province of philosophers and puzzle solvers. More recently, this type of reasoning has been shown to play a key role in a surprising number of contexts, from understanding conversations to the analysis of distributed computer algorithms. Reasoning About Knowledge is the first book to provide a general discussion of approaches to reasoning about knowledge and its applications to distributed systems, artificial intelligence, and game theory. It brings eight years of work by the authors into a cohesive framework for understanding and analyzing reasoning about knowledge that is intuitive, mathematically well founded, useful in practice, and widely applicable. The book is almost completely self-contained and should be accessible to readers in a variety of disciplines, including computer science, artificial intelligence, linguistics, philosophy, cognitive science, and game theory. Each chapter includes exercises and bibliographic notes.
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Introduction and Overview
A Model for Knowledge
Completeness and Complexity
Knowledge in MultiAgent Systems
Protocols and Programs
Common Knowledge and Agreement
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actions agent algorithm Alice allow approach assignment assume assumption attack attain awareness axiom Chapter common knowledge complete compute condition consider consistent context coordinated corresponding decide define definition delivered described determined discussion distributed easy environment equivalent event example Exercise fact failures false follows forehead formal formula function given global holds implies induction initial interest interpreted system Intuitively knowledge-based program knows Kripke structure language Lemma logic means modal muddy nonfaulty nonstandard Note notion observed operators particular performed player possible precisely primitive propositions problem proof properties propositional protocol prove provides reasoning Recall received relation representing respect restrict result round satisfies semantics sending sent sequence simultaneous situation sound specification standard Suppose tests Theorem true truth valid