Recovering Ethical Life: Jürgen Habermas and the Future of Critical Theory

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Taylor & Francis, 1995 - Philosophy - 249 pages
Jurgen Habermas' construction of a critical social theory of society grounded in communicative reason is one of the very few real philosophical inventions of recent times that demands and repays extended engagement. In this elaborate and sympathetic study which places Habermas' project in the context of critical theory as a whole past and future, J. M. Bernstein argues that despite its undoubted achievements, it contributes to the very problems of ethical dislocation and meaninglessness it aims to diagnose and remedy. Bernstein further argues that the precise character of the failures of Habermas' program demonstrate the necessity for a return to the first generation critical theory of Adorno. Reading across nearly the whole range of Habermas' corpus, "Recovering Ethical Life" traces the development of the theory of communicative reason from its inception in "Knowledge and Human Interests" through its elaboration in "The Theory of Communicative Action" and into its defense against postmodernism in "The Philosophical Discourse of Modernity," In separate chapters Habermas' readings of Freud, Durkheim amd Mead, Adorno and Foucault, Castoriadis and Taylor are critically examined. The focus of Bernstein's analyses, however, is always problem centered and thematic rather than textual psychoanalytic theory as an account of self knowledge, the competing claims of ethical identity and moral reason, the place of judgment in practical reason, and the debate between philosophies of language based communities versus those oriented towards world-disclosure. Critical theory is unique among current philosophies in engaging with the problems of social injustice and nihilism by siding withan abstract moral reason that forfeits the processes of intersubjective recognition it intended to salvage. Even in the fine grain of Habermas' account of performative contradictions and the new theory of discourses of application, Bernstein perceives a squandering of the resources of an ethical life in need of transfiguration.
 

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Contents

LIBERTY AND THE IDEAL SPEECH SITUATION
35
NARRATIVE
58
ON
88
THE GENERALIZED OTHER CONCRETE OTHERS
136
ON MODERNITY
159
LANGUAGE WORLDDISCLOSURE AND JUDGMENT
197
Notes
235
Index
247
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