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HORIZONTAL RESTRAINTS AND CARTEL
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7th Cir action actual agreement Alcoa analysis anticompetitive effects antitrust laws applied Areeda attempt buyers cert challenged charged Circuit Clayton Act commerce compete competition concentration concerned conduct conspiracy consumer surplus Corp corporation Court held Court reasoned customers damages dealer defendant defendant's demand curve denied determine doctrine economic efficiency elasticity enforcement entry evidence example exclusive dealing Federal Trade Commission firm firm's Guidelines horizontal Hovenkamp illegal increase industry injury interbrand involved issue Justice lower prices manufacturer marginal cost market power market share merger monopolist monopoly power Motor nonprice oligopoly output plaintiff Posner potential competitor predatory pricing price discrimination price fixing procompetitive product market profit maximizing prohibited purchase refusal to deal regulation relevant restrictions result retailers Robinson-Patman Act rule of reason sell seller Sherman Act standard substantial suppliers supply supra note Supreme Court territorial theory U.S. Steel United unlawful vertical integration vertical restraints violation