Managing Water for Peace in the Middle East; Alternative Strategies
One of the most important resources for socio-economic development in arid and semi-arid countries is water, and its scarcity in the Middle East has been a key factor in war and peace-making. The aim of this study is to provide some innovative technological answers to the fundamental questions of how to sustain the water supply - now and for the future. The author evaluates several non-conventional approaches that have the potential to resolve this persistent problem, and thus contribute towards peace among the water users in the Middle East. The author highlights the economic and environmental gains of co-generation applications and the political, economic, and technical viability of the strategic use of such sources as brackish water, seawater, and reclaimed waste water. A variety of alternatives on the transboundary transport of water are also described in full detail. The book also features a plan for the joint development of the Jordan River, Dead Sea, and Aqaba region.
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Al-Wuheda dam Amman Aqaba aquifer Aswan average Bahrain brackish groundwater brackish water canal climate co-generation conduit scheme cost countries Dead Sea desalination plant desalting discharge distillation drainage Egypt electricity energy estimated Euphrates evaporation feed water flow formation fresh water groundwater resources Gulf of Aqaba Huleh valley hydro-potential hydro-powered RO desalination hydrological increase Indus installed capacity inter-state irrigation Israel Israeli Jordan River Jordan River system Jordan valley Kuwait Lake Tiberias m3 per day Mediterranean Mediterranean-Dead Sea mg of TDS Middle East million m3 multi-stage flash national water National Water Carrier Nile non-conventional water resources non-renewable groundwater Palestine potential product water pumped pumped-storage scheme region reservoir reverse osmosis reverse-osmosis desalination riparian run-off salinity Saudi Arabia sea level seawater seawater desalination solar-hydro storage surface water Syria TDS per litre Tigris upper Jordan water supply water-resources development water-resources planning wellfield West Bank Yarmouk River
Page ii - ... projects and activities. Contributing to the awareness of the importance of indigenous concerns was the role played by indigenous peoples and their supporters at the United Nations Conference on Environment and Development (UNCED) held in Rio de Janeiro in June 1992.
Page 4 - Program's purpose was to reduce salt loading in order to enhance and protect the quality of water available in the Colorado River for use in the United States and Mexico (Public Law 93-320, Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Act).
Page 41 - In summary, it was not until the early part of the twentieth century that the modern Bolivian economy emerged.
Page 47 - In that same five minutes in that same place, an acre of land is being lost through water-logging and salinity. This is the largest irrigated region in the world. Twenty-three million acres are artificially watered by canals. The Indus and its tributaries, the Jhelum, the Chenab, the Ravi, the Beas and the Sutlej, created the alluvial plains of the Punjab and the Sind. In the...
Page 77 - Syria and forms the present boundary between Syria and Jordan for 40 km before it becomes the border between Jordan and Israel for about 12 km (Saliba 1968: 32; Naff and Matson 1984: 20).
Page 80 - It is generally assumed that the technical experts approved the details of this plan, but that the governments rejected it for political reasons. With the failure of these negotiations, both Israel and Jordan decided to proceed with water projects situated entirely within their own boundaries.
Page 60 - Nile water is ponded back above the junction at Khartoum. About half the discharge of the White Nile comes from the Sobat, which normally starts to rise towards the end of April, fed through the Baro and its tributaries from the rains on the Western Ethiopian mountains and (from about June) by water draining from the eastern swamps through the Pibor system.
Page 185 - Aqaba is situated at the head of the Gulf of Aqaba on the Red Sea, at the southern end of Wadi Araba (fig.
Page 260 - ... the liquid, venting the vapors to the atmosphere and concentrating the pollutants into a slurry. Reverse osmosis— Osmosis is the process where a solvent (eg, water) moves from an area of low concentration to high across a semipermeable membrane which does not allow the dissolved solids to pass. In reverse osmosis, a pressure greater than the osmotic pressure is applied so the flow is reversed. Pure water will then flow through the membrane from the concentrated solution. Solvent extraction...