Plutarch's Lives, Volume 1

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W. Heinemann, 1914 - Greece
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Page 255 - Spartan children were not in that manner under tutors, purchased or hired with money, nor were the parents at liberty to educate them as they pleased; but as soon as they were seven years old, Lycurgus ordered them to be enrolled in companies, where they were all kept under the same order and discipline, and had their exercises and recreations in common.
Page 281 - In a word, he trained his fellow-citizens to have neither the wish nor the ability to live for themselves ; but like bees they were to make themselves always integral parts of the whole community, clustering together about their leader, almost beside themselves with enthusiasm and noble ambition, and to belong wholly to their country.
Page 227 - Next, he undertook to divide up their movable property also, in is order that every vestige of unevenness and inequality might be removed; and when he saw that they could not bear to have it taken from them directly, he took another course, and overcame their avarice by political devices. In the first place, he withdrew all gold and silver money from currency and ordained the use of iron money 20 only. Then to a great weight and mass of this he gave a trifling value, so that ten minas' worth required...
Page 407 - work was no disgrace," nor did a trade bring with it social inferiority, and the calling of a merchant was actually held in honour, since it gave him familiarity with foreign parts, friendships with foreign kings, and a large experience in affairs. Some merchants were actually founders of great cities, as Protis, who was beloved by the Gauls along the Rhone, was of Marseilles.
Page 3 - What lies beyond is sandy desert without water and full of wild beasts," or " blind marsh," or "Scythian cold," or "frozen sea," so in the writing of my Parallel Lives, now that I have traversed those periods of time which are accessible to probable reasoning and which afford basis for a history dealing with facts...
Page 229 - Then to a great weight and mass of this he gave a trifling value, so that ten minas' worth required a large store-room in the house, and a yoke of cattle to transport it. When this money obtained currency many sorts of iniquity went into exile from Lacedaemon. For who would steal, or receive as a bribe, or rob, or plunder that which could neither be concealed, nor possessed with satisfaction, nay, nor even cut to pieces with any profit...
Page 225 - Determined, therefore, to banish insolence and envy and crime *o and luxury, and those yet more deep-seated and afflictive diseases of the state, poverty and wealth, he persuaded his fellow-citizens to make one parcel of all their territory and divide it up anew, and to live with one another on a basis of entire uniformity and equality in the means of subsistence, seeking preeminence through virtue alone...
Page 255 - Of reading and writing, they learned only enough to serve their turn ; all the rest of their training was calculated to make them obey commands well, endure hardships, and conquer in battle.
Page 253 - For it is said that epileptic and sickly infants are thrown into convulsions by the strong wine and loose their senses, while the healthy ones are rather tempered by it, like steel, and given a firm habit of body. Their nurses, too, exercised great care and skill ; they reared infants without swaddling-bands, and thus left their limbs and figures free to develop ; besides, they taught them to be contented and happy, not dainty about their food, nor fearful of the dark, nor afraid to be left alone,...
Page 467 - ... hippikon," a distance of four furlongs, that should be used, but where the distance was greater than this, people must try to get water of their own ; if, however, after digging to a depth of ten fathoms on their own land, they could not get water, then they might take it from a neighbour's well, filling a five gallon jar twice a day ; for he thought it his duty to aid the needy, not to provision the idle.

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