Madras: The presidency; mountains, lakes, rivers, canals, and historic areas; the east coast and Deccan districts, Madras City, and Chingleput district

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Superintendent of Government Printing, 1908 - Chennai (India)

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Page 558 - ... is not quite clear. One thing, at all events, seems certain — and it is what interests us most here — that the square raths are copies of Buddhist viharas, and are the originals from which all the vimanas in Southern India were copied, and continued to be copied nearly unchanged to a very late period.
Page 556 - ... least 1500 feet long, the partly natural resemblance having been assisted by the rolling away of rocks and boulders. On the spot, this is called the " Giant Raja Bali," but it is no doubt the work of Jains. ' The whole of this ridge is pitted with caves and temples. There are 14 or 15 Rishi caves in it, and much carving and figuring of a later period. These are distinguished by the marked transition from the representations of scenes of peace to scenes of battle, treading down of opposition and...
Page 559 - The other antiquities at Mahabalipur, though very interesting in themselves, are not nearly so important as the raths just described. The caves are generally small and fine architecturally, from the feebleness and tenuity of their supports. The southern cave-diggers had evidently not been grounded in the art like their northern compeers, the Buddhists.
Page 158 - The narrow tidal stream, which rushes through the neck connecting the lake with the sea, suffices to keep the water distinctly salt during the dry months from December to June. But once the rains have set in, and the rivers come pouring down upon its northern extremity, the sea-water is gradually driven out, and the Chilkd passes through various stages of brackishness until it becomes a fresh-water lake.
Page 184 - Karnataka has now got into the hands of foreigners, who have given it a new and entirely erroneous application. When the Muhammadans arrived in Southern India, they found that part of it with which they first became acquainted — the country above the Ghats, including Mysore and part of Telingana — called the Karnataka country. In course of time, by a misapplication of terms, they applied the same name Karnatak, or Carnatic, to designate the country below the Ghats, as well as that which was above.
Page 561 - The gateways, irregularly spaced in a great blank wall, lose half their dignity from their positions; and the bathos of their decreasing in size and elaboration, as they approach the sanctuary, is a mistake which nothing can redeem. "We may admire beauty of detail, and be astonished at the elaboration and evidence of labour, if they are found in such a temple as this, but as an architectural design it is altogether detestable.
Page 557 - The oldest and most interesting group of monuments are the socalled five raths, or monolithic temples standing on the sea-shore. One of these, that with the apsidal termination, stands a little detached from the rest. The other four stand in a line north and south, and look as if they had been carved out of a single stone or rock, which originally, if that were so, must have been between 35...
Page 94 - The basis of this system is the division of the whole area into fields by a cadastral survey, each field being valued at a fixed rate per acre and the assessment settled thereon. A holding is one or more of such fields or of their recognized subdivisions. The registered occupant of each field deals directly with Government, and so long as he pays the assessment he is entitled to hold the land for ever and cannot be ejected by Government, though he himself may, in any year, increase or diminish his...
Page 94 - ... so long as he pays the assessment he is entitled to hold the land for ever and cannot be ejected by Government, though he himself may, in any year, increase or diminish his holding or entirely abandon it ; should the land be required for a public purpose, it must be bought at 15 per cent, above its market value. Inheritance, transfer, mortgage, sale, and lease are without restriction; private improvements involve no addition, either present or future, to the assessment. Waste land may be taken...
Page 186 - Towards the end of the ninth, or beginning of the tenth century, the Chera country was overrun by the Cholas.

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