Basques in the Philippines
The Basques, one of Spain's most distinct ethnic minorities, played a remarkably influential role in the creation and maintenance of Spain's vast colonial empire, including the Philippines. Basques were members of the Magellan expedition that discovered the Philippines in 1521, and a Basque-led expedition subsequently laid the foundation for Spain's conquest and pacitication of the archipelago. Despite the small population of their native provinces, the Basques' unique skills as shipbuilders, navigators, businessmen, and scribes; their evangelical zeal; and their ethnic cohesion and work-oriented culture made them well suited to serve as explorers, colonial administrators, missionaries, settlers, merchants, and shippers in the trans-Pacific galleon trade between China, Manila, and Acapulco, Mexico. After the Wars of Independence deprived Spain of most of its American empire, many Basques settled in the Philippines, fleeing political persecution and increasingly limited opportunities in their homeland. Basque emigration from Spain to the Philippines continued through the first half of the twentieth century. This work breaks new ground with its study of the Basque diaspora in the far East. It also addresses the long-unappreciated history of the Philippines as a vital part of the Spanish Empire, closely connected through trade and personal ties to the American colonies, and crucial to the European penetration of East Asia. Basques distinguished themselves in many areas of Filipino life, and their story, as told by Marciano de Borja, is rich in vivid characters and fascinating detail, while at the same time filling an important void in the scholarly literature about the Basque diaspora.
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Aboitiz Aguirre American Andres Andres de Urdaneta Antonio Arana archipelago arrived Audiencia Augustinian Ayala Ayala Corporation Azcarraga Basque Country Basque descendants became Bilbao Bizkaia British Captain Carlist Carlota Cebu century China Chinese Domingo Donostia Dutch Economic Society Elcano Elizalde established father Father Damaso Filipino forces Francisco Fray Fred Elizalde frigate galleon trade Gipuzkoa Goiti governor governor-general haciendas Historia Ibarra Ibid Iloilo ippines Islas Filipinas Ispizua jai alai Japanese Joaquin Jose Rizal Juan later Lavezares Legazpi Limahong Loaysa lorcha Madrid Magellan expedition Makati Manila Manuel Maria de Ynchausti Martin Martin de Goiti Mexico Miguel military Mindanao mission missionaries Moluccas Morga native Navarrese navigation Negros Oc ordered Oyanguren Pedro pesos Philip Philippine Company Philippine History Philippine Islands piezas port Portuguese president province Rada Ramon religious Royal Salazar Salcedo settlement ships Simon de Anda Spain Spaniards Spanish colonial Spanish crown steamer Sucesos sugar Urbiztondo Urdaneta Uriarte vascos Viana