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ancient cast centre century B.C. character China Chinese circa coinage copper cowries currency denary cycle fu lat Gardner Coll heng hien Honan hwan inscribed issued in a.d. King kiu hwa KNIFE-MONEY Kuan Kung large spades legend Liang marks metal Ming moulds nien Nien-hao Northern Liang numismatic numismatists Obverse and Reverse P'an P'ing pieces Ping ping wu Plain pu coins racter References K.T.H. References.—K.T.H. Regular rims reverse as 320 round coins Rulers San shih Shang Shansi Shantung Shou small pus small sq specimens square hole Sui dynasty T'ang dynasty Tchao tchi Tchou dynasty Tchun tsiu Tchung Ts'i ts'ih Ts'in Tsih Tsih-moh Tsin Tso tchuen Tze-she shih fun Unimportant variety Variant Wang Mang weight Wu kingdom Wu shih Wu tchu yu right Yuen
Page 394 - The Coins of the Greek and Scythic Kings of Bactria and India in the British Museum, London, 1886.
Page 1 - Originally any metallic tool or implement of small size, or even a lump of metal, was used in barter. The convenience of this practice led gradually to the practice of casting sham tools or implements for the purpose of exchange only.
Page xxv - ... weighing from one to one hundred ounces. Paper imitations of these are burnt for the use of the spirits in the world below. The sharp edges of a "shoe...
Page xlvi - On the origin and transmission of some of the principal ancient systems of weight as applied to money from the earliest times down to the age of Alexander the Great.
Page xxix - Another method of moulding is described by the same author as follows: "Two tiles or bricks, fine grained, are chosen; one face of each ground smooth, that they may lie close; and stops and holes made in the bricks to hold them together. The mould is cut out with great care from the face of the brick, one half in each brick; a channel for the metal to run in is next cut; then the bricks are tied together with a piece of string, and the mould is ready for use.
Page 1 - BMC l stating that the sovereign "established in 1032 BC certain rules for currency, and enacted that metallic pieces should henceforth be exchangeable according to their weight.
Page 4 - that on early coins of China we find many private marks. ' The exchange being generally limited to the region of the issuers, they used on their currency to put as their marks names of regions, places, families, individuals, or things.' In early India also small ingots circulated bearing many countermarks, which may have been stamped on them either by financial authorities or else by private capitalists.2 I cannot examine in detail the theories of M. Babelon as to the way in which the Ionian bankers...
Page 213 - Hwan.. of Ts'I, proved dissatisfied with the stringent regulations on weights and money which had previously been enacted by the Prime Minister, Kwan-Tze. Their general, afraid of their being disloyal, granted to them the authorization of making use of their metal knives for barter. The people were delighted with the innovation, which was giving them a more convenient medium of exchange, and adopted it eagerly.