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How Materials have Influenced Con
The Steel Age
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alidade angles arch Bascule Bridges beam bottom brick builders building built caisson called cantilever cantilever bridges carry cement chain CHAPTER Chorobates civil engineers coffer-dam column concrete construction contour line contour map course crete cross hair curve dead load Dioptra distance driven earth Eddystone Lighthouse edge Egyptians elevation entirely erection example feet floor forces foundations frost line Groma Hero of Alexandria highways hill horizontal I-beam inch instrument known lake layer masonry material means measured metal method miles modern perhaps photograph piers piles pipe plate plumb bob pressure railroad rails reinforced ridge river riveted road rock Roman sand shape shown in Fig soil spans spread footing stone straight stream structural steel surface surveying surveyor suspension bridge telescope thick tion transit transitman triangle truss truss bridge tunnel vertical Vitruvius walls weight wheel wood workmen