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two Houses; his expressing displeasure against some persons for matters moved in Parliament during the debate and preparation of a bill, were breaches of privilege (2 Nelson, 7/t3); and in 1783, December 17, it was declared a breach of fundamental privileges, etc., to report any opinion or pretended opinion of the King on any bill or proceeding depending in either House of Parliament, with a view to influence the votes of the members. 2 Hats., 251, 6.

SEC. IV. ELECTIONS.

The times, places, and manner of holding elections for Senators and Representatives shall be prescribed in each State by the legislature thereof; but the Congress may at any time by law make or alter such regulations, except as to the places of choosing Senators. Constitution, I, 4.

Each House shall be the judge of the elections, returns, and qualifications of its own members. Constitution I, 5.

SEC. V. QUALIFICATIONS.

The Senate of the United States shall be composed of two Senators from each State, chosen by the legislature thereof for six years, and each Senator shall have one vote.

Immediately after they shall be assembled in consequence of the first election, they shall be divided as equally as may be into three classes. The seats of the Senators of the first class shall be vacated at the end of the second year; of the second class at the expiration of the fourth year, and of the third class at the expiration of the sixth year, so that onethird may be chosen every second year, and if vacancies happen, by resignation or otherwise, during the recess of the legislature of any State, the executive thereof may make temporary appointments until the next meeting of the legislature, which shall then fill such vacancies. Constitution, 1, S.

No person shall be a Senator who shall not have attained to the age of thirty years, and been nine years a citizen of the United States, and who shall not, when elected, be an inhabitant of that State for which he shall ho ohoson. Constitution, I, 3.

The House of Representatives shall be composed of members chosen every second year by the people of the several States; and the electors in each State shall have the qualifications requisite for electors of the. most numerous branch of the State legislature. Constitution, I, 2.

No person shall bo a Representative who shall not have attained the age of twenty-five years, and been seven years a citizen of the United States, and who shall not, when elected, be an inhabitant of that State in which ho shall be chosen. Constitution, I, 2.

Representatives and direct taxes shall be apportioned among the several States which may be included within this Union, according to their respective numbers; [which shall be determined by adding to the whole number of free persons, including those bound to service for a term of years, and excluding Indians not taxed, three-fifths of all other persons.]' The actual enumeration shall be made within three years after the first meeting of the Congress of the United States, and within every subsequent term of ten years, in such manner as they shall by law direct. The number of Representatives shall not exceed one for every thirty thousand, but each State shall have at least one Representative. Constitution, I, 2.

The provisional apportionments of Representatives made in the Constitution in 1787, and afterwards by Congress, were as shown in table on pages 78 and 79.

When vacancies happen in the representation from any State, the executive authority thereof shall issue writs of election to fill such vacancies. Constitution, I, 2.

No Senator or Representative shall, during the time for which he was elected, be appointed to any civil office under the authority of the United States which shall have been created,

*The portion of this clause of the Constitution within brackets has been amended by Boo. 2 of Article 14, 2il section.

Provisional apportionments of Representatives made in the Constitution in 1787, and afterwards by Congress.

[table]

'As per Constitution.

'As per act of April 14,1792, one Representative for 33,000— First Census.
'As per act of January 14,1S02, one Representative for 33,OCO—Second Census.
'As per act of December 21, J8U, one Representative for 35.000—Third Census.

* As per act of March 7,1822, one Representative for 40,000—Fourth Census.
•As per act of May 22, IS'H, one Representative for 47,7(10—Fifth Census.

7 As per act of June 25, 1842, one Representative for 70,680—Sixth Census.

•As per acts of May 23, 18.50, and July 30, lSf>2, one Representative for 93,423—Seventh Census.

"As per act of March 4,1862, one Representative for 127,381—Eighth Census.

"As per acts of February 2 and May 30,1S72, one Representative for 131,425— Ninth Census.

"As per act of February 25,1SS2, one Representative for 151,911—Tenth Census.

"As per act of February 7,1S91, one Representative for 173,901—Eleventh Census.

"As per act of January 16,1901, one Representative for 194,182—Twelfth Census.

"As per act of August S, 1911, one Representative for 211,877—Thirteenth Census.

"^Previous to the 3d March, 1S20, Maine formed part of Massachusetts, and was called the District of Blaine, and its Representatives are numbered with those of Massachusetts. By compact between Maine and Massachusetts, Maine became a separate and independent State, and by act of Congress of 3d ^farchl 1S20, was admitted into the Union as such— the admission to take place on the 15th of the same month. On the 7th of April, 1820, Maine was declared entitled to seven Representatives, to be taken from those of Massachusetts.

"Admitted under act of Congress, June 1,17%, with one Representative.

"Admitted under act of Congress, April 30,1802, with one Representative.

"Admitted under act ot ('engross, April 8, 1SL2, with one Representative.

"Admitted under act of Congress, December 11,1810, with one Representative.

"Admitted under act of Congress, December 10, 1817, with one Representative.

"Admitted under act of Congress, December 3,1818, with one Representative.

BAdmitted under act of Congress, December 14, 1819, with one Representative.

"Admitted under act of Congress, March 2, 1821, with one Representative.

'"Admitted under act of Congress, June 15, 1830, with one Representative.

"Admitted under act of Congress, January 26,1837, with one Representative.

"Admitted under act of Congress, March 3, IMS, with one Representative.

B Admitted under act of Congress, March 3, 1845, with one Representative.

•Admitted under act of Congress, December 20, 1815, with two Representatives.

"Admitted under act of Congress, May 29,1848, with two Representatives.

80Admitted under act of Congress, September 9, IMO, with two Representatives.

B Admitted underact of Congress, May 11,1S58, with two Representatives.

"Admitted under act of Congress, February 14,1S59, with one Representative.

^Admitted under act of Congress, January 29,1801, with one Representative.

"Admitted under act of Congress, June 20, 1863, with three Representatives.

Admitted under act of Congress, October 31,1864, with one Representative.

"Admitted under act of Congress, March 1,1867, with one Representative.

"Admitted under act of Congress, August 1,1870, wlt.hYmo Representative.

"Admitted under act of Congress, February 22,18S9, with two Representatives.

"Admitted under act of Congress, February 22, 1K89, with one Representative.

"Admitted under act of Congress, February 22, 1S.SO, with one Representative.

0Admitted under act of Congress, February 22,1SS9, with one Representative.

"Admitted under act of Congress, July 3, 1890, with one Representative.

"Admitted under act of Congress, July 10,1890, with one Representative.

"Admitted under act of Congress, July 16,1894, with one Representative.

•Admitted under act of Congress, June 10, 1906, with five Representatives.

* Admitted under act of Congress, June 20,1910, with one Representative. "Admitted under act of Congress, June 20,1910, with one Representative.

or the emoluments whereof shall have been increased, during such time; and no person holding any office under the United States shall be a member of either House during his continuance in office. Constitution, I, 6.

SEC. VI. QUORUM.

A majority of each House shall constitute a quorum to do business; but a smaller number may adjourn from day to day, and may be authorized to compel the attendance of absent members in such manner and under such penalties as each House may provide. Constitution,, I, 5.

In general the chair is i^ot to be taken till a. quorum for business is present; unless, after due waiting, such a quorum be despaired of, when the chair may be taken and the House adjourned. And whenever, during business, it is observed that a quorum is not present, any member may call for the House to be counted, and being found deficient, business is suspended. 2 Hate.. 125, 126

Note.—Sec Senate Rule III.

SEC. VII. CALL OF THE HOUSE.

On a call of the House, each person rises up as he is called, and answereth; the absentees are then only noted, but no excuse to be made till the House be fully called over. Then the absentees are called a second time, and if still absent, excuses are to be heard. Ord. House of Commons, 92.

They rise that their persons may be recognized, the voice, in such a crowd, being an insufficient verification of their presence. But in so small a body as the Senate of the United States the trouble of rising can not be necessary.

Orders for calls on different days may subsist at the same time. 2 Hats., 72.

Note.—See Senate Rule V. clause 2.

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