A History of the Popes, 1830-1914

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Oxford University Press, 2003 - Religion - 614 pages
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Could a Pope ever consent to be the subject of a political power? Chadwick presents an analysis of the causes and consequences of the end of the historic Papal State, and the psychological pressures upon old Rome as it came under attack from the Italian Risorgimento; and not only from Italy, but from liberal movements in Germany, France, Spain, and Portugal, as well as Tsarist Russia as it oppressed its Polish subjects. If a united Italy was to be achieved, the State would have to disappear. These pressures caused Popes to resist "the world" rather than to try to influence it, to make the Vatican more of a sanctuary behind high walls, and to preach the more otherworldly aspects of Catholic faith. At the same time they met new moral demands: the rights of the laborer in industry, divorce, and toleration--which they could confront because the Revolution had destroyed the powers of the Catholic kings over their churches. Thus, Chadwick points out, Catholic authority could be far more centralized in Rome.
 

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Contents

II
1
III
4
IV
9
V
12
VI
31
VII
34
VIII
43
IX
44
LXV
311
LXVI
312
LXVII
320
LXVIII
322
LXIX
330
LXX
332
LXXI
341
LXXII
346

X
46
XI
49
XII
51
XIV
53
XV
57
XVI
61
XVII
63
XVIII
71
XIX
77
XX
80
XXI
82
XXII
83
XXIII
85
XXIV
91
XXV
95
XXVII
105
XXVIII
109
XXIX
124
XXX
132
XXXI
135
XXXII
139
XXXIII
141
XXXIV
148
XXXV
153
XXXVI
155
XXXVII
161
XXXVIII
165
XXXIX
168
XL
181
XLI
215
XLII
220
XLIII
225
XLIV
226
XLV
228
XLVI
239
XLVII
243
XLVIII
245
XLIX
247
L
251
LI
254
LII
265
LIII
268
LIV
273
LV
278
LVI
281
LVII
283
LVIII
285
LIX
286
LX
288
LXI
290
LXII
301
LXIII
304
LXIV
307
LXXIII
359
LXXV
361
LXXVI
364
LXXVII
365
LXXIX
366
LXXX
371
LXXXI
377
LXXXII
391
LXXXIII
402
LXXXIV
406
LXXXVI
409
LXXXVII
411
LXXXVIII
416
LXXXIX
433
XC
434
XCII
436
XCIII
438
XCIV
444
XCV
446
XCVI
449
XCVII
452
XCVIII
454
XCIX
456
C
458
CI
460
CII
462
CIII
465
CIV
466
CV
469
CVI
473
CVII
475
CVIII
479
CIX
481
CX
484
CXI
493
CXII
504
CXIV
505
CXV
507
CXVI
510
CXVII
511
CXVIII
518
CXIX
521
CXX
524
CXXII
526
CXXIII
529
CXXIV
533
CXXV
541
CXXVI
550
CXXVII
568
CXXVIII
571
CXXIX
590
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About the author (2003)

Owen Chadwick is Emeritus Regius Professor of Modern History, University of Cambridge

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