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Existing Commodity Risk Management Mechanisms
Risk Management Schemes and Their Costs and Benefits
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adjusted agricultural stabilization funds August 1991 August cash-flow cocoa coefficients coefficients of variation Coleman commodity exports commodity price risk commodity risk management commodity swap commodity-linked copper price current FOB price debt service depend developing countries dividend stream dollar domestic price effect elasticity energy price risks exchange rate export earnings exposure financial instruments financial risk management fixed price foreign forward contracts future price gold price government revenues hedging instruments hedging strategy impact importance instability inter-year interest rate international prices investment Jonathan Coleman major primary commodity million mineral and energy mineral sector mining projects moving average MRDC MRDC's MRSF non-mining sector options ounces of gold palm oil paper Papua New Guinea payments percent period PNG economy Policy Porgera present value price changes price of gold profits regression result risk management schemes spot price stabilization schemes tax revenues threshold price value of dividends variability withholding tax World Bank