House Pits and Middens: A Methodological Study of Site Structure and Formation Processes at Ca-Ora-116, Newport Bay, Orange County, California
Donn R. Grenda, Christopher J. Doolittle, Jeffrey H. Altschul
Statistical Research, Incorporated, 1999 - History - 274 pages
ORA-116 is one of many coastal shell-midden sites in and around Newport Bay, a large, complex wetlands in southern California. Whereas shell-midden studies have traditionally focused on changes in subsistence and settlement patterns, this project took a decidedly different approach. Using a variety of innovative detection measures, eleven structures were identified and excavated. Most were interpreted as house pits; one was inferred to be a sweat lodge. The structures dated between about 300 B.C. and A.D. 700, placing the occupation within the Intermediate period. The archaeological study was augmented by pollen and ostracod analysis of a 1,081-cm core taken from the nearby San Joaquin Marsh, which helped establish the Holocene history of Newport Bay. The authors integrate archaeological, ethnographic, and environmental data in a comprehensive settlement and subsistence model that is sure to be of interest to all scholars of coastal wetlands adaptation.
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Field and Laboratory Methods by Dorm
Environmental Background by Jeffrey
Cultural Setting and Previous Research
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Altschul analysis approximately archaeological record Area assemblage beads Bifacial bone burned Chione Chione spp Chumash coastal core cultural data recovery debitage density deposits depression diameter domestic houses estuaries evidence excavated faunal remains Feature Figure firepit flakes floor fragments frequency freshwater Gabrielino Gamble Grenda ground-stone artifacts hearth historical-period house pits Hudson and Blackburn Hurd and Macko identified indicate interior Intermediate period Intermediate-period Koerper lagoon Late period lithic located manos Mason and Peterson material McCawley midden Millingstone Newport Bay region Newport Coast occupation Olivella ostracod pattern percent pollen postholes prehistoric present projectile points Puvunga quadrants screened radiocarbon dates recovered represented rocks rodent sample San Joaquin Hills San Joaquin Marsh Santa Ana Santa Ana River seasonal camps settlement shell shellfish soil species specimens stone structure suggests surface sweat lodges taxa tion types unidentifiable Unit uplands upper Newport Bay venus clam village weathering