Edward Drummond Libbey, American Glassmaker
Edward Drummond Libbey was a glassmaker, industrialist, artist, innovator and art collector. Both practical and creative, he forever changed the glass industry with the automatic bottle-making machine and automatic sheet glass machine. This work examines the long career of Libbey, particularly his innovation of American flint cut glass, his contributions to the middle-class American table through affordable glassware, and his enormous art glass and painting collections, which eventually formed the basis for the Toledo Museum of Art’s collection. Libbey single-handedly revolutionized glassmaking, a craft which had gone virtually unchanged for 2000 years.
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American art glass art museum artists automated blower Bock Boston bottle machine boys building bulb Business Men’s Association Carl Spitzer Carnegie Clarence Brown coal Colburn collection collectors cost craftsmen cut glass Edward Libbey England Glass Europe exhibition factory Findlay flint glass fuel furnace Geddes George Stevens Glass Company glass industry glass market glass products glassblower glasshouses glassmakers Gunsaulus Henry Clay Frick industrialists Joseph Locke Ketcham labor Libbey Glass Libbey Glass Records Libbey’s major manufacturing McKinley Michael Owens Mike Owens mold Museum of Art natural gas Northwest Ohio operation Owens bottle machine Owens machine Owens’s paintings patent percent pieces Pittsburgh plant president pressed glass problem profitable Richardson Robinson Locke Secor semi-automatic skilled Solon success tableware tariffs Tile Club Toledo Blade Toledo Glass Toledo Museum union University of Toledo wages Walbridge Ward Canaday Center West Virginia William Libbey window glass workers