Creative problem solving: total systems intervention
Creative Problem Solving * Total Systems Intervention * Robert L. Flood and Michael C. Jackson Department of Management Systems and Sciences, University of Hull, UK In the modern world organisations are faced with innumerable and multifaceted issues which cannot be captured in the minds of a few experts and solved with the aid of some super-method. It would be equally wrong to revert to a trial and error approach. We need to retain rigorous and formalised thinking, while admitting the need for a range of problem solving methodologies. The future prospects of management science will be much enhanced if (a) the diversity of issues confronting managers is accepted, (b) work on developing a rich variety of problem solving methodologies is undertaken, and (c) we continually ask the question: "What kind of issue can be 'managed' with which sort of methodology?" This volume, Creative Problem Solving: Total Systems Intervention, amounts to the bringing together of a huge human effort in the area of the management sciences. Each particular methodology that we have presented in this book is the realisation of years of work by many people, and the management and organisation theory to which we refer goes back nearly a century and has employed armies of researchers. Total systems intervention stands at the top of this mountain of effort and is able to offer an overview of the management-oriented disciplines which enables managers and decision makers to gain a command over how to employ them as a whole.
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achieve Ackoff analysis assumption surfacing Board changes Chapter clients co-operatives coercive complex conception concern consider creativity critical systems heuristics critique culture cybernetic debate decision makers development workers dominant effective elements environment example Executive Figure Fleet Division formulation groups hard systems homeostasis idealised design implementation important interactive planning interest involved issues logic and process loops machine neurocybernetic operational organic organisation participants philosophy planners pluralist possible practice principles problem contexts problem situations programme purpose quality management real world recognise relationship Sales SAST SD model simulation social systems design soft systems methodology staff stakeholders stock level strategy structure Super Fresh system dynamics system in focus system of systems systems approaches systems idea systems metaphors systems thinking theory top-down Total Quality Management Total Systems Intervention Ulrich unitary vehicle viable system diagnosis viable system model Winterton CDA world view