## Scaling: A Sourcebook for Behavioral ScientistsDespite the obvious importance of measurement in any scientific endeavor, few students of the social sciences receive adequate training in the principles and problems of assigning numerical values to the subjects, objects, events, groups and operations they study, and still less in the process of translating theoretical ideas and concepts into variables. This kind of casualness with respect to measurement is often in marked contrast to their methodically designed research, which has grown out of subtle and sophisticated theoretical consideration.Scaling is intended to remedy this deficiency by providing a broad and detailed description of the major processes for developing measurement scales. The chapters, which include both classics in the field and the best of modern work, require no great mathematical sophistication, and go well beyond the conventional study of attitudes to the more general uses of scaling. They enable the student and researcher to examine the development of measures of scalability and the problems and weaknesses they present, to become familiar with the development of tests of significance for reproducibility and scalability and the need for them, and to examine the lively history of the subject and experience the excitement that can be secured from sharing with a creative author the first report of his insight.Part One presents a series of general articles that deal in philosophic terms with the problem of measurement, with what is meant by measurement and scaling as well as the notions underlying the process of measuring. Part Two deals with the scaling methods developed by L. L. Thurstone, including paired comparison scaling, equal-appearing interval scaling, and successive interval scaling. The third part focuses upon scalogram analysis, presenting the background, rationale and procedures for Guttman scaling. The fourth part is concerned with summated rating, or Likert scaling. Part Five is a consideration of unfold |

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### Contents

Preface | |

MEASUREMENT AND SCALING | |

S Smith Stevens Measurement | |

Cletus J Burke Measurement Scales and Statistical | |

THURSTONIAN METHODS | |

Louis L Thurstone Psychophysical Analysis | |

Bert Green Paired Comparison Scaling Procedure | |

Allen L Edwards Paired Comparison Attitude | |

Benjamin W White and Eli Saltz Measurement | |

Karl F Schuessler A Note on Statistical | |

Roland J Chilton A Review and Comparison | |

Carmi Schooler A Note of Extreme Caution on | |

John P Robinson Jerrold G Rush and Kendra | |

H J Butcher A Note on the Scale Product | |

UNFOLDING THEORY | |

David Goldberg and C H Coombs Some | |

SCALOGRAM ANALYSIS | |

Louis L Guttman The Basis for Scalogram | |

RELATED MATERIALS | |

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### Common terms and phrases

American Sociological Association assigned assumption attitude scale attribute behavior coefficient of reproducibility column comparative judgments computed construction contrived item correlation cutting points determined developmental dichotomous discriminal dispersions discriminal processes distances distribution endorsed equal equation error example experimental factor factor analysis frequency given Guttman scale homogeneity hypothesis indicate individual interval scale J-scale Likert Louis Guttman magnitudes mathematical matrix mean measurement metric relations normal distribution number of items objects observed obtained ordered metric ordinal ordinal scale paired comparisons partial order percent phi coefficients population position possible probability problem procedure proportion Psychol psychological continuum psychological scale Psychometrika psychophysical Q values qualitative question rank order ratio scale reliability response patterns sample scalable scale analysis scale types scale values scalogram analysis scoring system set of items ſº social standard deviation statements statistical stimuli subjects Table technique theory Thurstone Thurstone scale total score universe variable weights zero