Altering American Consciousness: The History of Alcohol and Drug Use in the United States, 1800-2000

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Caroline Jean Acker, Sarah W. Tracy
Univ of Massachusetts Press, 2004 - History - 414 pages
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Virtually every American alive has at some point consumed at least one, and very likely more, consciousness altering drug. Even those who actively eschew alcohol, tobacco, and coffee cannot easily avoid the full range of psychoactive substances pervading the culture. With many children now taking Ritalin for Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder, professional athletes relying on androstenidione to bulk up, and the chronically depressed resorting to selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors such as Prozac, the early twenty-first century appears no less rife with drugs than previous periods.

Yet, if the use of drugs is a constant in American history, the way they have been perceived has varied extensively. Just as the corrupting cigarettes of the early twentieth century ("coffin nails" to contemporaries) became the glamorous accessory of Hollywood stars and American GIs in the 1940s, only to fall into public disfavor later as an unhealthy and irresponsible habit, the social significance of every drug changes over time.

The essays in this volume explore these changes, showing how the identity of any psychoactive substance -- from alcohol and nicotine to cocaine and heroin -- owes as much to its users, their patterns of use, and the cultural context in which the drug is taken, as it owes to the drug's documented physiological effects. Rather than seeing licit drugs and illicit drugs, recreational drugs and medicinal drugs, "hard" drugs and "soft" drugs as mutually exclusive categories, the book challenges readers to consider the ways in which drugs have shifted historically from one category to another.

In addition to the editors, contributors include Jim Baumohl, Allan M. Brandt, Katherine Chavigny, Timothy Hickman, Peter Mancall, Michelle McClellan, Steven J. Novak, Ron Roizen, Lori Rotskoff, Susan L. Speaker, Nicholas Weiss, and William White.

 

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Contents

Psychoactive DrugsAn Amencan Way of Life
1
Historical Perspectives on the Rhetoric of Addiction
33
Stalking the Social Logic of ProblemDefinition Transformations since Repeal
61
Alcohol and Narcotics in the American Context
89
Four Centuries of Alcohol Consumption in Indian Country
91
Rel1g1on Medicine Therapy
108
State Medical Reform for Iowa s Inebriates 19021920
124
Dynamics of Opiate Addiction in the Early Twentieth Century
165
The DepressionEra Struggle over Morphine Maintenance in California
225
Gendering the Modern Alcoholism Paradigm 19331960
267
Marital Dramas of Alcoholism in PostWorld War II America
298
No One Listened to Imipramine
329
Sidney Cohens Critique of 1950s Psychedelic Drug Research
353
Addiction Cigarettes and American Culture
383
Further Reading
403
Notes on Contributors
412

Hahitual Narcotic Use and the Logic of Professionalizing Medical Authority in the United States 19001920
182
The Rhetor1c of Drug Reform 19201940
203

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About the author (2004)

Sarah W. Tracy is assistant professor of honors and the history of medicine at the University of Oklahoma and author of the forthcoming From Vice to Disease: Alcoholism in America, 1870--1920. Caroline Jean Acker is associate professor of history at Carnegie Mellon University and author of Creating the American Junkie: Addiction Research in the Classic Era of Narcotic Control.

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