From Hand to Mouth: The Origins of Language

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Princeton University Press, 2003 - Science - 257 pages
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It is often said that speech is what distinguishes us from other animals. But are we all talk? What if language was bequeathed to us not by word of mouth, but as a hand-me-down?

The notion that language evolved not from animal cries but from manual and facial gestures--that, for most of human history, actions have spoken louder than words--has been around since Condillac. But never before has anyone developed a full-fledged theory of how, why, and with what effects language evolved from a gestural system to the spoken word. Marshaling far-flung evidence from anthropology, animal behavior, neurology, molecular biology, anatomy, linguistics, and evolutionary psychology, Michael Corballis makes the case that language developed, with the emergence of Homo sapiens, from primate gestures to a true signed language, complete with grammar and syntax and at best punctuated with grunts and other vocalizations. While vocal utterance played an increasingly important complementary role, autonomous speech did not appear until about 50,000 years ago--much later than generally believed.

Bringing in significant new evidence to bolster what has been a minority view, Corballis goes beyond earlier supporters of a gestural theory by suggesting why speech eventually (but not completely!) supplanted gesture. He then uses this milestone to account for the artistic explosion and demographic triumph of the particular group of Homo sapiens from whom we are descended. And he asserts that speech, like written language, was a cultural invention and not a biological fait accompli.

Writing with wit and eloquence, Corballis makes nimble reference to literature, mythology, natural history, sports, and contemporary politics as he explains in fascinating detail what we now know about such varied subjects as early hominid evolution, modern signed languages, and the causes of left-handedness. From Hand to Mouth will have scholars and laymen alike talking--and sometimes gesturing--for years to come.

 

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Contents

What Is Language?
1
Do Animals Have Language?
21
In the Beginning Was the Gesture
41
On Our Own Two Feet
66
Becoming Human
82
Signed Language
102
Its All Talk
126
Why Are We Lopsided?
159
From Hand to Mouth
184
Synopsis
213
References
221
Index
247
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About the author (2003)

David J. Bateman is a certified Cisco Systems instructor and the director of curriculum development for Skyline-ATS. He has more than 20 years of internetworking experience. For more than 10 years, David was a senior LAN/WAN engineer, working on small, medium, and large networks. Later in his career, he took on the responsibility of running the business operations of a technical services company, while maintaining his existing client base. David has always enjoyed sharing his knowledge, and in 1999, he added to his list of accomplishments by becoming a technical seminar leader. After many successful seminars, he decided to become a full-time Cisco instructor for Skyline Advanced Technology Services. He has been teaching and implementing Cisco voice technologies since 2000. David's years of real-world technical and business knowledge allow him to bring a unique perspective to the classroom, where he not only delivers critical technical knowledge but can also explain how technologies can be used to address various business issues.

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