Galen On the Natural Faculties
If the work of Hippocrates be taken as representing the foundation upon which the edifice of historical Greek medicine was reared, then the work of GALEN, who lived some six hundred years later, may be looked upon as the summit of the same edifice. He was born in Pergamum A.D. 129, and both there and in other academic centres of the Aegean pursued his medical studies before being appointed physicial to the Pergamene gladiators in 157. Becoming dissatisfied with this type of practice he emigrated to Rome, where he soon won acknowledgement as the foremost medical authority of his time and where, with one brief interruption, he remained until his death in 199.
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6pydvwv 7rpo alfia alteration animal Aristotle arteries Asclepiades attraction avr&v avro avrov avrrj avrwv aXXa becomes black bile bladder blood Bvvafiiv Bvvdfieis coats digestion dXXa dXXd eari eariv eirl eKaarov elvai Epaaiarparos Epicurus Erasistratus erepov evepyeias faculty fiepos fiev ovv fiev yap fiopiwv fiovov firj firjBev firjre firjv Galen Hippocrates horror vacui humours innate heat intestines irapa irdXiv irepl irpbs irXeov Kaddirep Kairoi Kal Bid Kal t&v Kara Karw Kevovfievov kidneys KoiXias liver lodestone Nature nourishment nutriment nutrition oaov olov orav organs ovBe ovBev ovre ovrw ovtw phlegm Praxagoras pvaiv ravra riva rjBrj rr)v rrjv semen spleen stomach stomata tivos tovt tovto tovtwv tS>v tt)v ttjv ureters urine uterus veins virb wairep Xoyov yaarepa yaarpbs yaarrjp yellow bile yiyveadai yiyverai
Page 137 - ... and consider how otherwise it is to become large than by being extended in all directions and acquiring nourishment throughout its whole substance, in the way that, as I showed a short while ago, the semen is nourished. But even this was unknown to Erasistratus — the man who sings the artistic skill of Nature ! He imagines that animals grow like webs, ropes, sacks, or baskets, each of which has, woven on to its end or margin, other material similar to that of which it was originally composed....
Page 342 - IV. PROCOPIUS. Trans, by HB Dewing. Vols. I and II. QUINTUS SMYRNAEUS. Trans, by AS Way. I Vol. SOPHOCLES. Trans, by F. Storr. 2 Vols. ST. JOHN DAMASCENE : BARLAAM AND IOASAPH. Trans, by the Rev. GR Woodward and Harold Mattingly. STRABO : GEOGRAPHY. Trans, by Horace L. Jones.
Page 59 - ... on removing the ligature from them, one then plainly sees the bladder becoming filled with urine. When this has been made quite clear, then, before the animal urinates, one has to tie a ligature round his penis and then to squeeze the bladder all over; still nothing goes back through the ureters to the kidneys. Here, then, it becomes obvious that not only in a dead animal, but in one which is still living, the ureters are prevented from receiving back the urine from the bladder. These observations...
Page 19 - One would be justified in calling this substance which undergoes alteration the material of the animal, just as wood is the material of a ship, and wax of an image. Growth is an increase and expansion in length, breadth, and thickness of the solid parts of the animal (those which have been subjected to the moulding or shaping process). Nutrition is an addition to these, without expansion.
Page 341 - SENECA : APOCOLOCYNTOSIS. Trans, by WHD Rouse, i Vol. PLAUTUS. Trans, by Paul Nixon. Vol. I. PLINY : LETTERS. Melmoth's Translation revised by WML Hutchinson. 2 Vols. PROPERTIUS. Trans, by HE Butler. I Vol.
Page 17 - The effects of Nature, then, while the animal is still being formed in the womb, are all the different parts of its body; and after it has been born, an effect in which all parts share is the progress of each to its full size, and thereafter its maintenance of itself as long as possible.
Page 19 - Genesis, however, is not a simple activity of Nature, but is compounded of alteration and of shaping. That is to say, in order that bone, nerve, veins, and all other [tissues] may come into existence, the underlying substance from which the animal springs must be altered; and in order that the substance so altered may acquire its appropriate shape and position, its cavities, outgrowths, attachments, and so forth, it has to undergo a shaping or formative process.
Page 5 - Thus we shall enquire, in the course of this treatise, from what faculties these effects themselves, as well as any other effects of nature which there may be, take their origin. First, however, we must distinguish and explain clearly the various terms which we are going to use in this treatise, and to what things we apply them; and this will prove to be not merely an explanation of terms but at the same time a demonstration of the effects of nature. When, therefore, such and such a body undergoes...
Page 342 - Trans, by RC Seaton. I Vol. THE APOSTOLIC FATHERS. Trans, by Kirsopp Lake. 2 Vols. APPIAN'S ROMAN HISTORY. Trans, by Horace White. 4 Vols. DAPHNIS AND CHLOE. Thornley's Translation revised by JM Edmonds; PARTHENIUS.
Page 111 - ... and sometimes even more, of residual matter. For this surplus must necessarily be greater in quantity in each of the larger viscera ; thus, for example, that of the lung, if it corresponds in amount to the size of the viscus, will obviously be many times more than that in the kidneys, and thus the whole of the thorax will become filled, and the animal will be at once suffocated. But if it be said that the residual matter is equal in amount in each of the other parts, where are the bladders, one...