## Plane and geodetic surveying: Higher surveying |

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accuracy adjustment altitude angle measure arithmetic astronomical axis of rotation azimuth benchmarks calculated Cassini projection celestial sphere centimetre centre chord chronometer reading circle coefficients computation condition method correct cos2 curvature curve datum described deviation direction e2 sin2 Earth effect ellipse Empire Survey Review exactly expressed figure formula geoid geometry gravity Greenwich height horizontal angle hour angle instrument latitude latitude and longitude least squares linear longitude mean measured lengths meridian plane metres misclosure observed angles observer's obtained obviously orthometric height orthomorphic parallel perpendicular plane section position line practice precise levelling problem procedure quantities radian radius refraction right ascension scale factor sea level shown in Fig side equation sidereal signals spherical excess spherical triangle spheroid bearing spheroid coordinates staff standard error Star Almanac stations surveyor Tellurometer theodolite tion transit Transverse Mercator projection traverse usually variations vertical angles zenith distance zero