The Rise of Commercial Empires: England and the Netherlands in the Age of Mercantilism, 1650-1770

Forsideomslag
Cambridge University Press, 13. mar. 2003 - 400 sider
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In early modern Europe, and particularly in the Netherlands, commercial empires were held together as much by cities as by unified nation states. David Ormrod here takes a regional economy as his preferred unit of analysis, the North Sea economy: an interlocking network of trades shaped by public and private interests, and the matrix within which Anglo-Dutch competition, borrowing and collaboration took shape. He shows how England's increasingly coherent mercantilist objectives undermined Dutch commercial hegemony, in ways which contributed to the restructuring of the North Sea staplemarket system. The commercial revolution has rightly been identified with product diversification and the expansion of long-distance trading, but the reorganization of England's nearby European trades was equally important, providing the foundation for eighteenth-century commercial growth and facilitating the expansion of the Atlantic economy. With the Anglo-Scottish union of 1707, the last piece of a national British entrepot system was put into place.
 

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Indhold

National economies and the history of the market
1
Leading cities and their hinterlands
9
Cities states and mercantilist policy
15
England Holland and the commercial revolution
29
Dutch trade hegemony and English competition 16501700
31
AngloDutch rivalry national monopoly and deregulation
33
internal free trade and external protection
43
English commercial expansion and the Dutch staplemarket 17001770
60
The Dutch and English economies as reexport systems
183
The Dutch Staplemarket and English reexports
186
Competition and monopoly
202
England Holland and the international grain trade
207
English exports and the decline of the Baltic grain trade
209
The course of trade and the impact of subsidies
216
English grain exports and the Dutch economy
226
Commercial organisation
234

stability and growth
66
English trade with the Dutch staplemarket
76
The merchant community
89
English trade with the Dutch staplemarket
101
Rivalry crisis and reorganisation in the woollen export trade
103
Commercial rivalry protectionism and their impact on production
106
The demise of the Merchant Adventurers in Holland 16001689
121
The Hamburg trade and the decline of the transit trade through Holland
127
The influx of foreign buyers into London and the decline of the wholesale merchant
134
Import substitution and European linen imports
141
The linen trade anatomised
145
The changing course of linen imports
153
The impact of duty increases
160
Protectionism and import substitution
167
Commercial organisation
174
The Dutch staplemarket and the growth of English reexports
181
The coal trade and energy resources
245
Hollands energy crisis and coal imports
247
Taxation and the coal trade
256
Commercial organisation
265
Dutch decline and English expansion
271
The shipping industry and the impact of war
273
The decline of Dutch Baltic trade and English competition
278
English domination of the North Sea trades
287
Protectionism and Dutch economic decline
307
British emancipation from the Dutch staplemarket and the impact of protectionism
309
The refinancing of the North Sea economy and the Atlanticisation of British trade
322
Conclusion Commercial growth and the divergence of England
334
Appendixes
352
Bibliography
363
Index
388
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Om forfatteren (2003)

David Ormrod is Lecturer in Economic and Social History at the University of Kent at Canterbury, and a leading authority on British and Dutch commercial history in the early modern period.

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