The American Apple Orchard: A Sketch of the Practice of Apple Growing in North America at the Beginning of the Twentieth Century

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Orange Judd Company, 1908 - Apples - 215 pages

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Page 157 - No. 2 apples shall be hand-picked from the tree; shall not be smaller than two and one-quarter inches in diameter. The skin must not be broken or the apple bruised. This grade must be faced and packed with as much care as No. 1 fruit.
Page 160 - He should by all means use fresh-made apple barrels. Apple "Boxes During recent years there has been a good deal of discussion as to the merits of the apple box. Many growers believe that there is a future for apples packed in this way. While the use of the box has been strenuously objected to in some quarters, especially by the commission men and fruit dealers, it has not always been clear that their advice was disinterested. In fact, it is common knowledge that in some cases they have bought apples...
Page 179 - In the brine-circulating system, the liquefied gas, instead of evaporating directly in coils in the storage room, evaporates in pipes surrounded by brine, or in a brine cooler. The heat used in the evaporation of the. gas is absorbed from the brine rather than from the room and its contents, as in the direct-expansion system. The cold brine is then pumped to coils in the storage room and the heat of the room and its contents is absorbed by the cold brine. The warm brine is then returned to the tank...
Page 157 - The standard for such varieties as Romanite, Russet, Winesap, Jonathan, Missouri Pippin, and other varieties kindred In size shall not be less than 2J4 inches.
Page 178 - ... compressor. Heat is generated by the compression; the gas is then cooled and condensed in pipes or coils called the condenser, either immersed in water or having water running over them, and this converts the gas into a liquid. The liquefied gas then passes an expansion valve to pipes or coils called the refrigerator cooling coils or cooler, where it is evaporated by the heat which is withdrawn from the surroundings. The gas formed by the evaporation of the liquid returns to the compressor, is...
Page 179 - In the direct-expansion system the liquefied gas evaporates directly in the cooling refrigerator coils or pipes which are placed in the refrigerator rooms. The heat used in the evaporation of the gas is absorbed from the room or from its contents, and the temperature is thereby reduced. The gas then returns to the compressor in the compression system, or to the absorber in the absorption system, and after being distilled in the latter case begins the refrigerating cycle anew.
Page 157 - In size, shall not be less than 2% inches. And further, that No. 1 apples shall be at time of packing practically free from the action of worms, defacement of surface, or breaking of skin ; shall be hand-picked from the tree, a bright and normal color, and shapely form.
Page 179 - There are three general methods of producing the desired temperatures in cold-storage rooms, and these are known as the direct-expansion, the brinecirculating, and the indirect or air-circulating systems. All three systems may be used in a cold-storage plant, and in a given room or compartment the aircirculating system is sometimes used in connection with the brine or the direct-expansion systems.
Page 50 - In recent years there has been a good deal of discussion of the need of considering the wholeness of organisms, of organizations of various social groups, etc.

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