Nitride Semiconductors and Devices

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Springer Science & Business Media, Sep 28, 1999 - Technology & Engineering - 489 pages
A View of the Past, and a Look into the Future by a Pioneer By Jacques I. Pankove This forword will be a brief review of important developments in the early and recent history of gallium nitride, and also a perspective on the current and future evolution of this exciting field. Gallium nitride (GaN) was syn thesized more than 50 years ago by Johnson et al. [1] in 1932, and also by Juza and Hahn [2] in 1938, who passed ammonia over hot gallium. This method produced small needles and platelets. The purpose of Juza and Hahn was to investiagte the crystal structure and lattice constant of GaN as part of a systematic study of many compounds. Two decades later, Grim al. [3] in 1959 employed the same technique to produce small cry meiss et stals of GaN for the purpose of measuring their photoluminescence spectra. Another decade later Maruska and Tietjen [4] in 1969 used a chloride trans port vapor technique to make a large-area layer of GaN on sapphire. All of the GaN made at that time was very conducting n-type even when not deli berately doped. The donors were believed to be nitrogen vacancies. Later this model was questioned by Seifert et al. [5] in 1983, and oxygen was pro as the donor. Oxygen with its 6 valence electrons on a N site (N has 5 posed valence electrons) would be a single donor.
 

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Contents

1 Introduction
1
2 General Properties of Nitrides
8
Wurtzitic
9
Thermal Coductivity K WcmK
15
0001 AIN
22
0890
33
GaN single crystals grown at high N2 pressure
37
E 4 7 4 + 1974
57
The picture regarding the hole mobility is not even at
266
9 The pn Junction
267
Type 1 Band Alignment
269
BRO
284
9 101dx 9
285
286
M
288
10 Optical Processes in Nitride Semiconductors
295

0001
70
4 Growth of Nitride Semiconductors
83
a
92
a
93
H2 25 slm+NH32slm
103
1 um
108
b
111
5 nm
134
5 Defects and Doping
149
83
158
Ts 1020 C
169
AntiBonding
171
Atomic concentration atomscc
175
6 Metal Contacts to GaN
191
der JesexpVER
198
les
220
8 Carrier Transport
233
u
323
p contact
342
blo
344
hel
345
epoxy lens Fig 117 Schematic representation of a
350
A
361
12 Semiconductor Lasers
379
Lens
381
F
386
M
393
1612
395
er
408
LBL
410
har
429
او
439
References
461
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Page 480 - H. Amano, M. Kito, K. Hiramatsu, I. Akasaki, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 28, L21 12 (1989).

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