Akbar the Great Mogul, 1542-1605
Akbar the Great Mogul, 1542-1605 is a biography of Akbar I (reigned, 1556-1605), the third and greatest of the Mughal emperors of India. The author, Vincent Arthur Smith, was an Irish-born historian and antiquary who served in the Indian Civil Service before turning to full-time research and scholarship. After assuming the throne while still a youth, Akbar succeeded in consolidating and enlarging the Mughal Empire. He instituted reforms of the tax structure, the organization and control of the military, and the religious establishment and its relationship to the state. He was also a patron of culture and the arts, and he had a keen interest in religion and the possible sources of religious knowledge. The book traces Akbar's ancestry and early years; his accession to the throne and his regency under Bayram Khan; his many conquests, including Bihar, the Afghan kingdom of Bengal, Malwa, Gujarat, Kashmir, Sind, parts of Orissa, and parts of the Deccan Plateau; and his annexation of other territories through diplomacy, including Baluchistan and Kandahar. The book devotes considerable attention to Akbar's religious beliefs and interests. On several occasions Akbar requested that the Portuguese authorities in Goa send priests to his court to teach him about Christianity, and the book recounts the stories of the three Jesuit missions organized in response to these requests. By origin a Sunni Muslim, Akbar also sought to learn from Shiʻite scholars, Sufi mystics, and Hindus, Jains, and Parsis. The last four chapters of the book are not chronological but deal with the Akbar's personal characteristics, civil and military institutions in the empire, the social and economic conditions of the people, and literature and art. The book contains a detailed chronology of the life and reign of Akbar and an annotated bibliography. Also included are maps and illustrations. Maps of India in 1561 and India in 1605 show the extent of Akbar's conquests, and sketch maps illustrate his main military campaigns.
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Birth Place & Caste of Hemu ??
Some learned historians/writters claim that Hemu was born at Machheri Village of Alwar in 1501 and spent his youth in Reewari ( Haryana) . His father , a Brahmin, was a purohit. He was unable to earn sufficient income to feed his family mainly due to persecution of Hindu religious ceremonies by mugals. Therefore he started trading in food/salt and Hemu became saltpeter on street. ( wikipedia,the free encyclopaedia/http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rewari)
(These learned historians/writters fail to establish any reliable connections/ relations between Adil Shah,the ruler of Sasaram & Hemu with Alwar or Rewari . It is a matter of common sense that only closed and trusted friends since childhood would be appointed as Prime Minister cum Military chief of any Ruler especially Mugal ones. Since Adil Shah was born & bought up in Sasaram so Hemu must have belonged to Sasaram or near about area . However Hemu’s wife might have got refuge/shelter in Reewari after an escape from Delhi in 1556.As far as his caste is concerned normally it is traditionally perceived that those engaged in business/trading about six centuries ago were from Bania/Vanik or vaishya and not from Brahmin community. Thus the Rauniyar’s century old claim that Hemu was their legend, seems to be not out of contention.However a detailed investigation/research is required .