The Roman West, AD 200-500: An Archaeological Study
This book describes and analyses the development of the Roman West from Gibraltar to the Rhine, using primarily the extensive body of published archaeological evidence rather than the textual evidence underlying most other studies. It situates this development within a longer-term process of change, proposing the later second century rather than the 'third-century crisis' as the major turning-point, although the latter had longer-term consequences owing to the rise in importance of military identities. Elsewhere, more 'traditional' forms of settlement and display were sustained, to which was added the vocabulary of Christianity. The longer-term rhythms are also central to assessing the evidence for such aspects as rural settlement and patterns of economic interaction. The collapse of Roman imperial authority emphasised trends such as militarisation and regionalisation along with economic and cultural disintegration. Indicators of 'barbarian/Germanic' presence are reassessed within such contexts and the traditional interpretations questioned and alternatives proposed.
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the thirdcentury crisis 18
soldiers and civilians 42
Reshaping the cities 97
Christianity and the traditional religions 150
Emperors and aristocrats in the late Roman West 198
Rural settlement and economy in the late Roman West 264
The economy of the late Roman West 303
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Alamanni amphorae apse archaeological evidence argued aristocratic Arles army baptistery barbarian basilica baths Britain brooches buildings burials Carranque cemeteries central centres Chapter Christian church cities coin coinage construction decoration deﬁned diﬂicult discussion display economic elite emperor ethnic excavations ﬁfth century ﬁnds ﬁrst ﬁrst half ﬁscal ﬁttings ﬂoor fortiﬁcations fourth and ﬁfth fourth century functions funerary Germanic Heijmans High Empire hoards Iberia Iberian peninsula identiﬁed identity imperial important inﬂuenced late antique late Roman linked major material culture Mediterranean military monuments mosaic northern Gaul Notitia Dignitatum Novempopulana oﬂicial Ossel particularly pattern period political population pottery probably production Pyrenees range reﬂected region residences Rhine Rhineland Roman Empire Roman provincial Roman West rural settlement Saint-Ouen-du-Breuil second century signiﬁcant sixth century social south-eastern south-western Gaul southern Spain speciﬁc status structures suggests Tarragona textual Toxandria traditional Trier types urban villa Visigothic walls Western