X3D: Extensible 3D Graphics for Web Authors
In the early days of the Web a need was recognized for a language to display 3D objects through a browser. An HTML-like language, VRML, was proposed in 1994 and became the standard for describing interactive 3D objects and worlds on the Web. 3D Web courses were started, several best-selling books were published, and VRML continues to be used today. However VRML, because it was based on HTML, is a stodgy language that is not easy to incorporate with other applications and has been difficult to add features to. Meanwhile, applications for interactive 3D graphics have been exploding in areas such as medicine, science, industry, and entertainment. There is a strong need for a set of modern Web-based technologies, applied within a standard extensible framework, to enable a new generation of modeling & simulation applications to emerge, develop, and interoperate. X3D is the next generation open standard for 3D on the web. It is the result of several years of development by the Web 3D Consortium's X3D Task Group. Instead of a large monolithic specification (like VRML), which requires full adoption for compliance, X3D is a component-based architecture that can support applications ranging from a simple non-interactive animation to the latest streaming or rendering applications. X3D replaces VRML, but also provides compatibility with existing VRML content and browsers. Don Brutzman organized the first symposium on VRML and is playing a similar role with X3D; he is a founding member of the consortium. Len Daly is a professional member of the consortium and both Len and Don have been involved with the development of the standard from the start.
Geometry Nodes Part 1 Primitives
Viewing and Navigation
Appearance Material and Textures
Geometry Nodes Part 2 Points Lines and Polygons
Event Animation and Interpolation
User Interactivity Nodes
Geometry Nodes Part 3 Geometry2D Nodes
Lighting and Environment Nodes
Environment Sensor and Sound Nodes
Geometry Nodes Part 4 Triangles and Quadrilaterals
Creating Prototype Nodes
Event Utilities and Scripting
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3D graphics accessType Name Default animation authoring child nodes ClassicVRML Syntax x3dv color colorPerVertex component computed concave polygons coordinate system Core Table Default Range Profile defined in Table ECMAScript event cascade Field Definitions Figure Full profile functionality geometry nodes Grouping Nodes Hints and warnings ImageTexture Inline input inputOnly inputOutput metadata NULL Interchange SFBool initializeOnly Interchange SFNode inputOutput interface Interpolation isActive LoadSensor metadata NULL X3DMetadataObject MFString Name Default Range NavigationInfo Node syntax node types Node XML Syntax node’s normal objects output events outputOnly polygons primitive geometry ProximitySensor radians rendering right-hand rule rotation scene graph Script node sensor sensor nodes SFBool inputOutput SFFloat SFNode inputOutput metadata SFTime SFVec3f shown in Table syntax is shown texture TextureCoordinate TimeSensor TouchSensor Transform node triangles true Interchange SFBool Type accessType Name user’s value_changed vertex VRML Web3D Consortium X3D browsers X3D nodes X3D scene X3D specification X3D-Edit XHTML XML Syntax x3d
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Page 21 - Since XML is a text format and it uses tags to delimit the data, XML files are nearly always larger than comparable binary formats. That was a conscious decision by the designers of XML. The advantages of a text format are evident (see point 3), and the disadvantages can usually be compensated at a different level. Disk space...
Page 22 - Before XML there was SGML, developed in the early '80s, an ISO standard since 1986, and widely used for large documentation projects. The development of HTML started in 1990. The designers of XML simply took the best parts of SGML, guided by the experience...
Page 22 - XML is modular XML allows you to define a new document format by combining and reusing other formats. Since two formats developed independently may have elements or attributes with the same name, care must be taken when combining those formats (does "<p>" mean "paragraph" from this format or "person
Page xviii - A journey of a thousand miles begins with a single step.
Page xxvi - Dayton in 1970. He has done graduate work in Physics and Systems Engineering. Mr. Dietz is a member of the Association for Computing Machinery (ACM), Special Interest Group on Artificial Intelligence and the American Association for Artificial Intelligence.
Page 21 - XSL is the advanced language for expressing style sheets. It is based on XSLT, a transformation language used for rearranging, adding and deleting tags and attributes. The DOM is a standard set of function calls for manipulating XML (and HTML) files from a programming language. XML Schemas 1 and 2 help developers to precisely define the structures of their own XML-based formats.