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absolute end actions advert aggregate analogy bulk capital departments commands commonly conduct Consequently delicts difference distinction distinguished enforced ethics evil example expression forbear given society habitual obedience human law hypothesis imposed independent political society jurisprudence jus gentium jus naturale law and morality Law of Persons Law of Things law set laws or rules laws properly lectures legal rights matter meaning ment merely nations nature neral objects obligations original covenant pact party perly pernicious political and independent political government political superiors positive law positive moral rules principle of utility promise properly so called purpose quasi-contracts racters reign relative duty render rights and duties rights in personam rights in rem Roman Law sanctions signified society political sove sovereign body sovereign government sovereign number sovereign or supreme sovereign powers sovereignty styled subjects subordinate suppose supreme government term tical tion vernment weal wherein writers
Page 268 - Every positive law, or every law simply and strictly so called, is set by a sovereign person, or a sovereign body of persons, to a member or members of the independent political society wherein that person or body is sovereign or supreme. Or (changing the expression) it is set by a monarch, or sovereign number, to a person or persons in a state of subjection to its author.
Page 181 - Solitude many men have sought, and been reconciled to: but nobody that has the least thought or sense of a man about him, can live in society under the constant dislike and ill opinion of his familiars, and those he converses with. This is a burden too heavy for human sufferance: and he must be made up of irreconcileable contradictions, who can take pleasure in company, and yet be insensible of contempt and disgrace from his companions.
Page 178 - For though men uniting into politic societies have resigned up to the public the disposing of all their force, so that they cannot employ it against any fellow-citizens, any farther than the law of the country directs ; yet they retain still the power of thinking well or ill, approving or disapproving of the actions of those whom they live amongst, and converse with : and by this approbation and dislike they establish amongst themselves what they will call virtue and vice.
Page 220 - When a number of persons (whom we may style subjects) are supposed to be in the habit of paying obedience to a person, or an assemblage of persons, of a known and certain description (whom we may call governor or governors) such persons altogether (subjects and governors) are said to be in a state of political SOCIETY.* XI.
Page 181 - Nor is there one of ten thousand, who is stiff and insensible enough to 180 bear up under the constant dislike and condemnation of his own club. He must be of a strange and unusual constitution, who can content himself to live in constant disgrace and disrepute with his own particular society.
Page 178 - Thus the measure of what is everywhere called and esteemed " virtue" and " vice," is this approbation or dislike, praise or blame, which by a secret and tacit consent establishes itself in the several societies, tribes, and clubs of men in the world, whereby several actions come to find credit or disgrace amongst them, according to the judgment, maxims, or fashions of that place.
Page 36 - God designs the happiness of all his sentient creatures. Some human actions forward that benevolent purpose, or their tendencies are beneficent or useful. Other human actions are adverse to that purpose, or their tendencies are mischievous or pernicious. The former, as promoting his purpose, God has enjoined. The latter, as opposed to his purpose, God has forbidden. He has given us the faculty of observing ; of remembering ; of reasoning : and, by duly applying those faculties, we may collect the...
Page 146 - A few species of the laws which are set by general opinion have gotten appropriate names.— For example, there are laws or rules imposed upon gentlemen by opinions current amongst gentlemen. And these are usually styled the rules of honour, or the laws or law of honour.— There are laws or rules imposed upon people of fashion by opinions current in the fashionable world. And these are usually styled the law set by fashion...
Page 199 - ... The superiority which is styled sovereignty, and the independent political society which sovereignty implies, is distinguished from other superiority, and from other society, by the following marks or characters: — 1. The bulk of the given society are in a habit of obedience or submission to a determinate and common superior: let that common superior be a certain individual person, or a certain body or aggregate of individual persons. 2. That certain individual, or that certain body of individuals,...