Informing Science Volume One: Concepts and Systems

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Informing Science
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The two volume Informing Science series is the first attempt
to survey and synthesize research in the informing science
transdiscipline. Part textbook, part collection of readings, the
two volumes present both important research findings relating
to the field and highlight fertile directions for future research.
Volume One: Concepts and Systems focuses on the key
building blocks of informing science. It begins with an
overview of the transdiscipline, tracing its evolution from
Cohen’s original proposal to its present state. Next, it
considers a series of concepts that frequently elude attempts
at rigorous definition. Among these: theory, research,
information, knowledge and complexity. With working
definitions established, it goes on to explore basic systems
theory, introducing the concept of an informing system. The
key elements of such systems—the channel, the
sender/informer, and the receiver/client—are then examined
individually. The volume concludes with two overview
chapters. The first of these looks at the analysis of a basic
informing system, in which a single informer interacts directly
with a clearly specified client or set of clients. The last chapter
extends these ideas to the more complex topologies (e.g.,
multiple channels, multiple informers, multiple clients, layers
of informing) that are more typical in real world informing
contexts.

 

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Contents


Another precursor occupation is the accounting machine operator The oldest organizations that include IS professionals such as ACM and IACIS dre...
13
While this framework is helpful it still leaves several important topics undelineated For example what does it mean to inform a client? Is it merely pro...
17
In parallel with this effort to expand the scope of the informing science transdiscipline the flagship journal of the field announced an editorial policy ...
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Open access book publishing The ISI runs the Informing Science Press which has published dozens of books that are also made available in electroni...
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There are several channels that are maintained by the ISI including conference books journals outreach activities
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Informing Science Objectives
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For this reason when information science researchers view informing they see only information science When computer science professionals view i...
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There is no one single best source of illumination Both lasers and lanterns have their uses
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Another example of how informing science began promoting a broader conception of research is through providing outlets and support for the deve...
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The problem with preferring to deal entirely in concepts is that some concepts cannot be learned until precursor skills are acquired Daniel Willingha...
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Occasional benefits of discussion case writing
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Bias Misinformation and Disinformation in Informing Systems
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Complex versus Routine Informing
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The informing science field continues to expand its perspectives however In Chapter 20 of Volume Two further research approaches and topics that ...
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Scientific disciplines evolve around shared beliefs and assumptions called paradigms each generates is own set of puzzles deemed worthy of solution ...
32
The International Journal of an Emerging Transdiscipline The flagship journal published by the Informing Science Institute and the principal outlet f...
33
References
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enwikipediaorgwikiFox_News_Channel_controversies
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Prentice Hall
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Wagner E D 1994 In support of a functional definition of interaction American Journal of Distance Education 82 629
37
Theory and Research
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Introduction
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A taxonomy of theory types in IS research Gregor 2006 p 620
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By the beginning of the 19th century the wave paradigm had come to dominate science To address the problem of the lack of a medium they propos...
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At the time he began his research the prevailing Western view was that plant and animal species had been placed on the planet by God and were imm...
44
A statement is justified when the holder of the statement has good reasons to accept the statement A coherence form of justification of a statement sug...
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The JTB approach appears to be adequate in almost all situations although there may be some situations where it is not a necessary and sufficient desc...
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The belief itself is the set of characteristics in the intersection of the statement in question and the believed or accepted statements or Ssbstatement stat...
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Consider the statement the car is red If the statement the car is not red is in the set of believed statements the statement the car is red is in the comple...
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The statement of knowledge is Ksbg with the amount of knowledge in Ksbg being Kmbg Using these statements one has a qualitative statement of k...
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When Cohen discussed the power of metaphors in the Chapter 1 readings from A Philosophy of Informing Science he was effectively referring to a t...
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Here once again we find the notion that such schemes may be relevant in a particular context but not necessarily true in the objective sense Davidson ...
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a findings that the proposed hierarchy is biased towards the motivational structure of certain cultures and b many examples where individuals bypass ...
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Simple Unexpected Concrete Credible Emotional and Stories the SUCCESs framework In order to meet the second condition for model usefulness so...
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Using multivariate statistical techniques such as multiple regression to tease out effects associated with specific factors
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Logical Empiricist and Hermeneutic Dialectic views Bednar and Welch 2008
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Historical context of data collected
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Nature of Inquiry
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Awareness of this process and attempts to focus upon the understandings and perspectives of the actorsstakeholders are needed in shaping the require...
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Design science research DSR describes an actionoriented research paradigm that focuses on the development of design artifacts This is further discuss...
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4 Constructing the actual use artifacts A blueprint is a construction artifact that serves to guide the physical construction of a house source code is a c...
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Key Lessons Learned from Chapter 2
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A philosophy that admits to the possibility of many observerdependent realities and leans heavily on the contextdependent exchange of information ...
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10 In what ways does design science research differ from conventional empirical research approaches?
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Dretske F I 1983 Precis of knowledge the flow of information Behavioral and Brain Sciences 6 5590
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HBS Press
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Information and Informing
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What Is Information?
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How is information generatedcreated? What constitutes information?
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An alternative view of information advocated by researchers such as Mutch 1996 Davenport 1997 Davenport and Prusak 1998 and Knox 2007 is to ...
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The process perspective asserts that information and knowledge are purely human centred activities and not ones that technology currently mimics S...
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would such clarification offer value to anyone? Wilson 1986 supports this complexity by arguing that the common usage of the term is a problem ...
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Lueg 2001 further argues that information is a kind of preliminary stage to knowledge Chaffey Wood 2005 characterise knowledge as being the co...
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Checkland Holwell 1998 p88
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Despite its widespread usage there are strong arguments that can be advanced that such simplistic model impedes our understanding of the concepts T...
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The problems of relating information and knowledge have become further confused by the introduction of information technologies that provide us ...
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As an object of study knowledge is harder to keep in focus than is information Information science or studies has gained momentum as a field of res...
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I iD S t where
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The client may reject the data conveyed in the message based upon his or her preexisting knowledge
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Facts or beliefs stored by entities within an informing system that are embedded within a network of relationships
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The receiverclient perceives the amount of information to depend upon 1 the ability to extract dataknowledge from the message 2 the degree to whic...
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Information Use Behavior consists of the physical and mental acts involved in incorporating the information found into the persons existing knowled...
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Finally the above distinction between informing and information systems brings the following tacit assumption into the open Advocates of technical s...
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As suggested by the preceding reading the distinction between informing systems and information systems remain somewhat controversialeven withi...
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A term that is defined in many different ways For our purposes it is facts or beliefs stored by entities within an informing system viewed in isolation i...
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6 What limitations if any does treating data and information as being constructed from a series of bits place upon us?
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How organisations manage what they know Boston Harvard Business School Press
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iisitorgissuesVol4v2htm
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cmbelllabscomcmmswhatshannondayshannon1948pdf
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Complexity
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Introduction
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The main problem with using the term complexity stems from its ambiguity When Richard Hicks and I analyzed several hundred articles that either d...
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3 The degree to which the goals and relationships associated with the task change as the task is being performed dynamic complexity
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Three domains of task complexity
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A problem space is a representation of the cognitive system that will be used to perform a task described in terms of 1 a set of states of knowledge 2 o...
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It is also possible to view the conceptual problem space as being shared For example consider how the problem of getting from Point A to Point B pr...
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The term ruggedness applied refers to the design fitness landscape where many distributed local maxima exist for different values of the multiple desi...
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Path in our context refers to a series of transitions through the problem space Gill Murphy 2011 p 2 In proposing the Memex an imaginary PKMS a...
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The traditional paperbased publication is designed to contain all the information required to stop inquiries within the publications topic But now our ...
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Moreover the PKMS supports the notion that knowledge and skills of a knowledge worker are portable and mobile As professionals move from one ...
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The US could suffer a coasttocoast blackout if saboteurs knocked out just nine of the countrys 55000 electrictransmission substations on a scorching ...
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Some examples of phenomena that follow power laws
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Glossary
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Chapter Questions
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An inquiry into work practices in onestop shops Lund Sweden Lund University Department of Informatics Diss
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dxdoiorg10131402149326409 abstract or httpdxdoiorg10131402142670404 poster or httpproceedingseskillsconferenceorg2014eskills417447Sch...
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Fitness Landscapes Utility and Motivation
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Introduction
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Substantial NK complexity comes with a number of other properties that can be vexing to researchers Consider the existence of theory fragmentstheo...
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4 The use of empirical statistical techniques that assume decomposability as their base case such as multiple linear regression is likely to yield as many...
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Assume that outliers are valid observations and avoid statistical approaches that average effects Rationale In systems assumed to be decomposable un...
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4 Little changes sometimes make a big difference to fitness When a landscape is decomposable changes in most variables exert a predictable and usua...
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What exactly is a scientific manuscript? Shown here is the title page of a manuscript with actual title left panel and a hypothetical title page of the sa...
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Fitness and the Case Method
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Each of these categories have various subcategories that can be further classified according to the complexity that they address and the cognitive skill...
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Research cases
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Of the ten Table 2 types of cases eight are routinely used in teaching Figure 3 presents my rough approximation of a framework for where each type ...
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Perhaps the most important takeaway from this framework is that your attitude towards discussion cases is most likely to be determined by your belie...
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In the eyes of classical economists the basic idea behind utility is simple Whenever we are presented with a choice each decision option presented to u...
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the impact of risk on utility the impact of time on utility and the behavior of multiattribute utility functions Research into risk has focused on better u...
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Why take on a low structure task instead of sticking to the familiar? From a species survival standpoint the benefits are obvious By our willingness to ...
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When drives interact new component drives can emerge For example the drive to acquire and the drive to bond lead to a drive for fairness Much acq...
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He started the bidding
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Our utility preferences are not immutable When we have acquired rules for effective decisionmaking in a particular context our utility preferences te...
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Given these observations it is not surprising that Ordonez et al 2009a relied heavily on complex real world examples as evidence whereas controlled l...
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Unfreeze Move Freeze
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Glossary
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a All eight variables interact seven linkages
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An interview with Ray Goldberg Informing Science The International Journal of an Emerging Transdiscipline 16 203212
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Ristow M Zarse K Oberbach A Kiöting N Birringer M Kiehntopf M Blüher M 2009 Antioxidants prevent healthpromoting effects of physical exercise...
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Systems Concepts
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Introduction
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A component within a system is an artifact agent or subsystem whose behaviors can be described in terms of inputs processing and outputs
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In considering system boundaries it can be useful to think about how systems can be related to each other In fact there are a number relationships bet...
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It is not unusual for a system to be a member of multiple hierarchies For example a research faculty member participates in both an institutional syste...
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the journal article The system that leads to production of each article is an instance of the authorship process undertaken by one or more researchers ...
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This three layer abstraction has been highly influential in the evolution of the informing science field eg Cohen 1999
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o At the other extremepure informing systemsthese resource flows serve solely to support the production and distribution of informing flows For exa...
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Social systems are often diagrammed as networks of connected nodes with informing linkages between nodes shown as lines Although such a depicti...
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A passenger reaches the entrance where heshe may be refused entry at the security checkpoint
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The stages of a flowsystem are mutually exclusive and complete that is a flowthing always exists in only one of these states or stages Process in this m...
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Modeling System Behaviors
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equilibrium explosiveexponential growth cycling and chaos We now consider each of these briefly
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The entire notion of economic equilibrium is based upon system concepts such as these While negative feedback within a system does not always pro...
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All this is important because economic systems are at their core informing systems It is true that physical goods and services are produced and moved...
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Using this model the direct effect of raising the number of elements in the system is straightforward It lengthens the righthand side of the curvemeani...
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In summary factors that increase the size reactivity and connectivity of a networked informing systemsuch as globalization and increasingly powerful...
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Key Lessons Learned from Chapter 6
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Glossary
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A feedback configuration where high levels of output serve as a control that increases subsequent flow through the system Such feedback tends to pr...
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10 A faculty member at a university complains that his classes are too large and that his students are not sufficiently qualified He proposes that raising...
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1057728451 ISBN 9789533070858 Retrived from httpwwwintechopencombooksprocessmanagementoptimizingofenterprisecommunicationprocesse...
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COMPONENTS AND SYSTEMS
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The Channel
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Introduction
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At the other extreme a temporary channel is one that is normally created for a specific purpose and is not expected to be maintained Using the broad ...
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The process of buying and selling was conducted through a mixture of shouting and arcane hand signals that were entirely opaque to the outsider Th...
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The OSI Communications Model
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We need to be able to get the attention of the system that we are sending to and both sides need to know when the communication is over Session lay...
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In the information science field the researchers tried to identify gatekeepers in social societies and to understand their role in these frameworks based ...
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BarzilaiNehon and Neumann 2005 define gate keeping as a process of controlling information as it flows through a gate The activities of the controll...
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Preliminary analysis based on evidence
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Preliminary analysis based on evidence
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Preliminary analysis based on evidence
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It is our view that over time the term will lose its negative stigma and will simply refer to the fact that a highly automated and integrated business pro...
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achieve reliable exchange of highquality video ie large video files through a devastated and statecontrolled public telephone system as fast as possible
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After democratic changes in Serbia the system was redesigned and today it is the biggest network of news branch offices in SouthEastern Europe inv...
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1 The use of a particular delivery system to support several different informing systems There is considerable irony associated with the fact that techn...
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Key Lessons Learned from Chapter 7
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A conceptual scheme that predicts greater retention of information conveyed through rich channels
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References
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Klobas J E McGill T 1995 Identification of technological gatekeepers in the information technology profession Journal of the American Society for ...
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Rowley J 2003 Knowledge management The new librarianship? From custodians of history to gatekeepers of the future Library Management 24 43...
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Senders and Informers
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Introduction
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long term memory which holds knowledge for a very long time and working memory which represents that portion of our knowledge that we are ac...
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Expertise generally cannot be acquired without both activities
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There are many types of expert behavior that simply could not exist in the absence of chunking and automatization The chess master who plays ten o...
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Interestingly learning curve improvements often accompany task performance in general not just practice situations It has also been observed in man...
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1 If you really want a student to remember a concept forever design your curriculum so that it is covered in the first course of a three course sequenc...
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Experts already have a rich store of mental representations for the knowledge in their domain When an expert encounters a particular image or collec...
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Another factor that can impact storage is emotion Events or concepts acquired in the presence of strong emotion are more likely to reach long term st...
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Retrieving knowledge is actually a misnomer It suggests that reacquiring a memory is similar to going to your bookshelf and pulling out a book that ...
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bed rest awake tired dream wake snooze blanket doze slumber snore nap peace yawn drowsy
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Over time an individual will accumulate thousands of different problem spaces each suitable for a particular set of task instances The choice of what ...
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Under these conditions experimental subjects almost all get it right The same thing happens when you play the game with cards that have beer or cok...
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The problem of competing knowledge is also frequently observed and goes unrecognized in educational settings For example faculty members teach...
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2 Sometimes expertise can represent a serious barrier to informing often referred to as the expert paradox
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As internally consistent subsets of knowledge are applied together a more comprehensively linked and consistent set of relationships emerges Level 2...
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Expert knowledge because of its highly compiled nature it is subject to the paradox of expertise namely the more expert you become the less well yo...
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Both practitioner and academic expertise have their limits The following reading illustrates how the manner in which experts represent a problem can...
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Cutting the blanks for cardboard boxes
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On examining the plot of train tonnage against train length we found the data could be much better fitted to two straight lines one with twice the slop...
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Our state government ran a Hospital Linen and Laundry Service HLLS doing the laundry for a number of government institutions including hospital...
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On reflection I realized that the problem was essentially the same as the hospital laundry costing problem and that the ROM trials were equivalent to d...
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Key Lessons Learned from Chapter 8
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A temporary holding area
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6 What are the likely implications of reconstructing rather than retrieving knowledge?
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Halhoun I A Hestenes D 1985 The initial knowledge state of college physics American Journal of Physics 53 10431055
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Receivers and Clients
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Introduction
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Another factor impacting accuracy involved the gun sights Although telescopic sights were sometimes provided to enlarge the target they were attach...
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Ultimately Sims broke the informing deadlock by writing directly to Theodore Roosevelt then President of the United States Roosevelt brought Sims ...
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it can change information passing through the channel including adding information not originally conveyed it can inhibit specific information flowi...
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These weigh the consequences of the message in terms of uncertainty
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One business area where interference has been studied extensively is in the advertising industry where senders pay large sums of money to inform cli...
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Unless youve seen these examples before it is easy to miss the fact that the word the is repeated Information filters do this type of processing all the ti...
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Most importantly every single one of the Table 91 heuristics depends on prior client knowledge What this means is that no two individuals in a grou...
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the intrinsic motivation filters and rigorrelevance filters In both cases motivation is closely tied to the concept of utility
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Relevance
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Visceral factors have the ability to impact cognitive functions in many ways Many of these resemble the taskrelated filters already discussed except th...
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iii Increasing the intensity of a visceral factor for ourselves and another person in parallel leads to a decline in altruism
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The nature of the frenzy observed by the researchers caused them to attribute the unexpected valuations to competitive arousal an emotional reaction ...
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Emotions and feelings may be generated as a consequence of being informed Where this is the case the decision to engage in the informing process ...
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Many of the examples previously cited as evidence for the Law of Abandoned Expertise also have social components that amplify the taskspecific eff...
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All existing informing science perspectives have in common that they do not differentiate further between the fairly generic practitioner stakeholder s...
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Purely technical artifacts imply that there is no direct interaction between them and endusers and they therefore form part of hardware or software pr...
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To take a closer look at different concepts of artifact utility and thus artifact relevance for different audiences it makes sense to also take a more diff...
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Relating this to the different relevance types leads to the conclusion that an artifact first needs to be of conceptual relevance for the aforementioned a...
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For designing abstract artifacts researchers informing challenges are more numerous The artifact initially needs to be designed to be potentially useful...
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Drechsler 2014 relates these properties to different artifact adoption phases and to a certain extent audiences For the decision phase and thus for infor...
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To further complicate the matter unless the artifact in question is purely social or purely technical only when taken together do the technical and soc...
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It is noteworthy that the business audiences will tend to perceive the sociotechnical artifact as a whole the social components such as process descripti...
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1 Because the human brain is continuously bombarded with huge quantities of information sight sound other senses memories we are able to attend t...
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Another competitor whose principal technology was focused on brainwaves Unlike Neurofocus however it had developed monitoring devicessuch as...
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In light of its quest for the unobtrusive the holy grail of the marketing research industry was to observe participants in their preferred natural setting i...
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Biometric Technologies
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Pettit R Innerscope Research An ARF Research Review Advertising Research Foundation Research Report 11 September 2009 Augmented by casewri...
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Innerscope Biometric Monitoring System
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Emotional Engagement vs Tivo Behavior
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The new science of neuromarketing provides evidence of the importance of unconscious processes such as client filters in shaping client perceptions ...
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b You only hear what you want to hear
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Towards a phenomenology of sociology and a sociology of phenomenology Philosophy of the Social Sciences 1 309344
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A study of auction fever in live and Internet auctions Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes 96 89103
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Sierra J J Hyman M R 2006 A dualprocess model of cheating intentions Journal of Marketing Education 283 193204
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Basic System Model
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The Original Informing Science Framework
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the task technology structure and people The key points here are that the components are interrelated so a change in one affects all the others and that...
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TaskCompletion System The driving force behind the creation of informing environments and delivery systems is that a task needs to be accomplishe...
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Active informing entities emit transmit disseminate or broadcast signals conveying information by nature or by design Those doing it by nature eg na...
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From Shannon and Weavers 1949 theory of communications it is known that information measurably changes the state and entropy of the receiver e...
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disinformation and valid information
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4 However to become operationally effective the received communication must be internalized as situationspecifically actually or potentially actionab...
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From the perspective of entities informed after informing took place the gathered collected acquired and recognized information values become the ...
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Hypothetical Informing Systems Levels
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What becomes clear from this example is that there must be at least two distinct dimensions to informing fit illustrated in Diagram 101 The first is the ...
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Academic informing systems such as business schools are best viewed as a pair of interdependent systems On the one hand we have the disciplinary i...
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Research that is specifically directed towards improving the effectiveness of teaching ie informing student clients or other aspects of the discipline out...
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The first case study involves the MIS department at the University of Central Florida UCF which was recently disbanded It illustrates the problems tha...
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It is reasonable to attribute part of the change in MIS research philosophy to wildly fluctuating enrollment patterns For example in the mid1990s stud...
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A comparison of teaching and research interests for AIS members Numbers in the nonoverlapping portion of the large circle represent percentage of ...
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Not long after the new departmental focus was established the rapid drop in MIS enrollments experienced by virtually all business schools began Des...
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What the diagram shows is thatconsistent with what was typical for MIS research at the timeinforming and resource flows between the department an...
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The inherent price volatility and yield volatility of farm productionthe latter largely attributable to weather but also a result of biological factors such ...
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When I first encountered agribusiness at Harvard the program had been active for nearly 30 years By that time Professor Davis had retired and the pr...
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By the time I started my MIS doctorate at HBS agribusiness had already been displaced from its easily accessible offices in Loeb Hall and relocated to...
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The complicated nature of this system provides a nice segue to the next chapter where we consider informing system topologies
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Exchange of information between informer and client conducted through intermediaries
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4 Under what circumstances does it make sense to consider the various informing levels instance construction and design in depicting an informing s...
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structural technological and humanistic approaches in March JG Ed 1965 Handbook of Organizations Chicago ILRand McNally Chicago
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Informing Topologies
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Introduction
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4 Multiple communications pathways may be utilized within the same informing system For example an advertising campaign may involve the use o...
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1
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Onetoone informing systems are supported by virtually all types of channels Even technologies and venues intended for alternative cardinalitiessuch...
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This further limits the degree of interaction available Furthermore when limited to synchronous deployment onetomany channels often present serio...
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Be the product of multiple experts with one or more subject matter experts SMEs and one or more instructional technology experts typically involved
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Adaptive learning theory can be conceptualized within the informing science theory framework In this light an adaptive learning system can be seen ...
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Adaptive learning systems represent a plethora of pedagogical and technological approaches that are difficult to categorize Lee and Park 2008 deline...
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learner model domain model and adaptation model The learner model is a representation of relevant learner characteristics such as personal informati...
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Current implementations of adaptive learning systems vary in sophistication The most rudimentary systems incorporate straightforward rulebased arc...
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While the commodity pits where such communication was practiced for hundreds of years were a picturesque exception to this generalization they w...
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The bus topology is illustrated in Diagram 111 While it is a highly effective way of enabling peertopeer communications and is extremely resilient to...
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Having a central hub with dedicated channels to each remaining entity handling all message traffic virtually eliminates the problem of message collisi...
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The most common variation of the ring topology is the token ring where a token is passed around the network according to a preset pattern and an e...
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Mesh topologies have many features in common with bus topologies and the two are often combined to form hybrid networks For example when a c...
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Based on the discussions in this section a summary of the alternative informing system cardinalities is presented in Table 111 As should be readily evi...
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Informing layers where peers and near peers eg executives and managers pass information back and forth to avoid the overloading of a centralized h...
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In a functional hierarchy the level below the top is broken into the three divisions Within each functional department support for each division is pro...
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The discussion of a chaindriven organization leads into a more general organizational form one in which the organization is designed to perform a sp...
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Virtual organizations are networked organizations taken to their logical conclusion These organizations have no facilities or other assets to speak of I...
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Consideration of the general problem of achieving fit between different organizational forms and the environment is far beyond the scope of this bo...
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Diffusion processes often have to reach a critical mass after which diffusion starts to take off at a very rapid rate Rogers 2003 p 349
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Glossary
360
4 Why is technology so essential to synchronous manytomany system cardinalities? What other approaches to manytomany informing can succeed if...
361
An overview In Student learning styles Diagnosing and prescribing programs pp 117 Reston VA National Association of Secondary School Principals
362
About the Author
364
Index
365
Barabasi 29 34 125 128
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Christensen 139
367
Darwin 43 44 68
368
ERP 151 185
369
Gladwell 28 29 35 126 236 256 259 300
370
Informing Science Institute ii iv 3 10 18 19 20 32 33 37 82 98 331 364
371
knowledge workers 113 161 334
372
Mason 12 13 36 246
373
Norman 245 260
374
recognition heuristic 242
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Shannon 7 8 14 15 33 36 83 84 85 96 99 304 308 309 332 334 362
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thinking 12 19 22 25 31 35 48 61 98 107 158 214 235 236 244 248 305 314
377
Western Electric 56
378
Copyright

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About the author

Grandon Gill is a professor of Information Systems and Decision
Sciences at the University of South Florida’s Muma College of
Business and also serves as Academic Director of the Doctor of
Business Administration degree program. He has served as
Editor-in-Chief of Informing Science: The International Journal of
an Emerging Transdiscipline since 2009, and is both a Governor
and a Fellow of the Informing Science Institute. In 2014, he
became the inaugural recipient of the Zbigniew Gackowski Award,
given for lifetime contribution to informing science research.

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